Neuronal physiology


Ontology type: npg:Subject  | skos:Concept     


Concept Info

NAME

Neuronal physiology

DESCRIPTION

Neuronal physiology refers to the biology of neuronal function, including an understanding of the molecular and cellular processes that underlie neuronal activity.

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37 Nerve Impulse
38 Nerve Impulses
39 Spike Potential
40 Spike Potentials
41 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/neuronal-physiology
42 skos:definition Action potential generation is the process by which a neuron rapidly depolarizes from a negative resting potential to a more positive potential, and is achieved by influx of cations (sodium ions or calcium ions) through ion channels. It occurs at the action potential initiation zone region of the soma, and is propagated along the axon to downstream targets.
43 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
44 skos:prefLabel Action potential generation
45 sg:ontologies/subjects/dendritic-excitability sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
46 rdf:type npg:Subject
47 skos:Concept
48 rdfs:label Dendritic excitability
49 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/neuronal-physiology
50 skos:definition Dendritic excitability refers to the readiness of synapses and branches in a dendritic tree to depolarize. It is influenced by the resting membrane potential, ion channel and receptor expression, relative intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations, and is altered during synaptic plasticity.
51 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
52 skos:prefLabel Dendritic excitability
53 sg:ontologies/subjects/excitability sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
54 rdf:type npg:Subject
55 skos:Concept
56 rdfs:label Excitability
57 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/neuronal-physiology
58 skos:definition Excitability is a property of a cell, allowing it to respond to stimulation by rapid changes in membrane potential produced by ion fluxes across the plasma membrane. This is most commonly associated with neurons, but more recently astrocytes have also been shown to exhibit ‘cellular excitability’, resulting from changes in calcium ion concentration in the cytosol.
59 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
60 skos:prefLabel Excitability
61 sg:ontologies/subjects/inhibition sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
62 rdf:type npg:Subject
63 skos:Concept
64 rdfs:label Inhibition
65 skos:altLabel Neural Inhibition
66 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/neuronal-physiology
67 skos:definition Inhibition in the nervous system occurs when a neuron or circuit is rendered less likely to generate an action potential. It generally involves the release of an inhibitory neurotransmitter such as GABA, which acts to hyperpolarize a neuron and thus increase the threshold for depolarization and action potential generation.
68 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
69 skos:prefLabel Inhibition
70 sg:ontologies/subjects/inhibition-excitation-balance sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
71 rdf:type npg:Subject
72 skos:Concept
73 rdfs:label Inhibition–excitation balance
74 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/neuronal-physiology
75 skos:definition Inhibiton–excitation balance (E–I balance) is a form of homeostatic plasticity that helps to maintain neuronal activity within a narrow, safe range. It refers to the relative degree of excitatory and inhibitory drive in a neural circuit, and is established during development and is maintained in the mature nervous system.
76 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
77 skos:prefLabel Inhibition–excitation balance
78 sg:ontologies/subjects/intrinsic-excitability sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
79 rdf:type npg:Subject
80 skos:Concept
81 rdfs:label Intrinsic excitability
82 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/neuronal-physiology
83 skos:definition Intrinsic excitability is the electrical excitability of a particular neuron. It is determined by the number and distribution of ion channels and receptors that contribute the electrical properties and depolarization potential of the neuron.
84 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
85 skos:prefLabel Intrinsic excitability
86 sg:ontologies/subjects/membrane-potential sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
87 rdf:type npg:Subject
88 skos:Concept
89 rdfs:label Membrane potential
90 skos:altLabel Membrane Potentials
91 Resting Membrane Potential
92 Resting Membrane Potentials
93 Resting Potential
94 Resting Potentials
95 Transmembrane Electrical Potential Difference
96 Transmembrane Potential
97 Transmembrane Potential Difference
98 Transmembrane Potential Differences
99 Transmembrane Potentials
100 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/neuronal-physiology
101 skos:definition The membrane potential of a neuron refers to the relative difference of ionic (electric) charge across a membrane. It is created by differential ion concentrations, maintained by ion channels and ion transporters, and for most neurons, the resting membrane potential is around -70 mV. Changes in membrane potential are associated with depolarization and hyperpolarization.
102 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
103 skos:prefLabel Membrane potential
104 sg:ontologies/subjects/neuroscience sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
105 rdf:type npg:Subject
106 skos:Concept
107 rdfs:label Neuroscience
108 skos:altLabel Neurosciences
109 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
110 skos:definition Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary science that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the nervous system. It encompasses the evolution, development, cellular and molecular biology, physiology, anatomy and pharmacology of the nervous system, as well as computational, behavioural and cognitive neuroscience.
111 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
112 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/auditory-system
113 sg:ontologies/subjects/blood-brain-barrier
114 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-death-in-the-nervous-system
115 sg:ontologies/subjects/cellular-neuroscience
116 sg:ontologies/subjects/circadian-rhythms-and-sleep
117 sg:ontologies/subjects/cognitive-ageing
118 sg:ontologies/subjects/cognitive-neuroscience
119 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-neuroscience
120 sg:ontologies/subjects/development-of-the-nervous-system
121 sg:ontologies/subjects/diseases-of-the-nervous-system
122 sg:ontologies/subjects/emotion
123 sg:ontologies/subjects/epigenetics-in-the-nervous-system
124 sg:ontologies/subjects/feeding-behaviour
125 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetics-of-the-nervous-system
126 sg:ontologies/subjects/glial-biology
127 sg:ontologies/subjects/gliogenesis
128 sg:ontologies/subjects/gustatory-system
129 sg:ontologies/subjects/ion-channels-in-the-nervous-system
130 sg:ontologies/subjects/learning-and-memory
131 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-neuroscience
132 sg:ontologies/subjects/motivation
133 sg:ontologies/subjects/motor-control
134 sg:ontologies/subjects/myelin-biology-and-repair
135 sg:ontologies/subjects/neural-ageing
136 sg:ontologies/subjects/neural-circuit
137 sg:ontologies/subjects/neuro-vascular-interactions
138 sg:ontologies/subjects/neurogenesis
139 sg:ontologies/subjects/neuroimmunology
140 sg:ontologies/subjects/neuronal-physiology
141 sg:ontologies/subjects/neurotrophic-factors
142 sg:ontologies/subjects/oculomotor-system
143 sg:ontologies/subjects/olfactory-system
144 sg:ontologies/subjects/peripheral-nervous-system
145 sg:ontologies/subjects/regeneration-and-repair-in-the-nervous-system
146 sg:ontologies/subjects/reward
147 sg:ontologies/subjects/sensorimotor-processing
148 sg:ontologies/subjects/sensory-processing
149 sg:ontologies/subjects/sexual-behaviour
150 sg:ontologies/subjects/social-behaviour
151 sg:ontologies/subjects/social-neuroscience
152 sg:ontologies/subjects/somatosensory-system
153 sg:ontologies/subjects/spine-regulation-and-structure
154 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cells-in-the-nervous-system
155 sg:ontologies/subjects/stress-and-resilience
156 sg:ontologies/subjects/synaptic-plasticity
157 sg:ontologies/subjects/synaptic-transmission
158 sg:ontologies/subjects/transporters-in-the-nervous-system
159 sg:ontologies/subjects/visual-system
160 skos:prefLabel Neuroscience
161 skos:Concept sgo:sdDataset for_codes
162 rdf:type rdfs:Class
163 rdfs:Resource
164 rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:Resource
165 skos:Concept
 




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