Molecular biology


Ontology type: npg:Subject  | skos:Concept     


Concept Info

NAME

Molecular biology

DESCRIPTION

Molecular Biology is the field of biology that studies the composition, structure and interactions of cellular molecules – such as nucleic acids and proteins – that carry out the biological processes essential for the cell’s functions and maintenance.

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Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

486 TRIPLES      10 PREDICATES      38 URIs      8 LITERALS

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
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228 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/genetics
229 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
230 skos:definition Epigenetics is the study of molecular processes that influence the flow of information between a constant DNA sequence and variable gene expression patterns. This includes investigation of nuclear organization, DNA methylation, histone modification and RNA transcription. Epigenetic processes can result in intergenerational (heritable) effects as well as clonal propagation of cell identity without any mutational change in DNA sequence.
231 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
232 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-methylation
233 sg:ontologies/subjects/dosage-compensation
234 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-silencing
235 sg:ontologies/subjects/imprinting
236 skos:prefLabel Epigenetics
237 sg:ontologies/subjects/non-coding-rnas sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
238 rdf:type npg:Subject
239 skos:Concept
240 rdfs:label Non-coding RNAs
241 skos:altLabel Non-Coding RNA
242 Non-Peptide-Coding RNA
243 Non-Protein-Coding RNA
244 Noncoding RNA
245 Nontranslated RNA
246 Untranslated RNA
247 npcRNA
248 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
249 skos:definition Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that are not translated into protein products. Different classes of non-coding RNAs participate in different cellular processes; for example, gene expression regulation (miRNAs, piRNAs, lncRNAs), RNA maturation (snRNAs, snoRNAs) and protein synthesis (rRNAs, tRNAs).
250 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
251 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/long-non-coding-rnas
252 sg:ontologies/subjects/mirnas
253 sg:ontologies/subjects/piwi-rnas
254 sg:ontologies/subjects/sirnas
255 sg:ontologies/subjects/small-rnas
256 skos:prefLabel Non-coding RNAs
257 sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-organization sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
258 rdf:type npg:Subject
259 skos:Concept
260 rdfs:label Nuclear organization
261 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
262 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
263 skos:definition Nuclear organization refers to the spatial distribution of nuclear contents and components in a way that reflects or facilitates their activities. For example, chromatin or nucleoli may become more condensed or expanded in response to changes in gene expression or cellular growth rate.
264 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
265 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/cajal-bodies
266 sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-envelope
267 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleolus
268 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleoskeleton
269 sg:ontologies/subjects/pml-bodies
270 sg:ontologies/subjects/speckles
271 sg:ontologies/subjects/stress-granules
272 skos:prefLabel Nuclear organization
273 sg:ontologies/subjects/post-translational-modifications sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
274 rdf:type npg:Subject
275 skos:Concept
276 rdfs:label Post-translational modifications
277 skos:altLabel Post Translational Amino Acid Modification
278 Post Translational Modifications
279 Post Translational Protein Modification
280 Post Translational Protein Processing
281 Post-Translational Amino Acid Modification
282 Post-Translational Modification
283 Post-Translational Protein Modification
284 Post-Translational Protein Modifications
285 Post-Translational Protein Processing
286 Posttranslational Amino Acid Modification
287 Posttranslational Modification
288 Posttranslational Modifications
289 Posttranslational Protein Processing
290 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
291 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
292 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
293 skos:definition Post-translational modifications are modifications that occur on a protein, catalysed by enzymes, after its translation by ribosomes is complete. Post-translational modification generally refers to the addition of a functional group covalently to a protein as in phosphorylation and neddylation, but also refers to proteolytic processing and folding processes necessary for a protein to mature functionally.
294 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
295 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/acetylation
296 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycosylation
297 sg:ontologies/subjects/methylation
298 sg:ontologies/subjects/neddylation
299 sg:ontologies/subjects/nitrosylation
300 sg:ontologies/subjects/phosphorylation
301 sg:ontologies/subjects/polyadp-ribosylation
302 sg:ontologies/subjects/prenylation
303 sg:ontologies/subjects/sumoylation
304 sg:ontologies/subjects/ubiquitylation
305 skos:prefLabel Post-translational modifications
306 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-folding sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
307 rdf:type npg:Subject
308 skos:Concept
309 rdfs:label Protein folding
310 skos:altLabel Globular Protein Folding
311 Globular Protein Foldings
312 Protein Foldings
313 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
314 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
315 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
316 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-biology-and-bioinformatics
317 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
318 skos:definition Protein folding is the process by which proteins achieve their mature functional (native) tertiary structure, and often begins co-translationally. Protein folding requires chaperones and often involves stepwise establishment of regular secondary and supersecondary structures, namely α-helices and β-sheets, that fold rapidly, stabilized by hydrogen bonding and disulphide bridges, and then tertiary structure.
319 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
320 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/chaperones
321 sg:ontologies/subjects/endoplasmic-reticulum
322 sg:ontologies/subjects/prions
323 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-aggregation
324 skos:prefLabel Protein folding
325 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteolysis sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
326 rdf:type npg:Subject
327 skos:Concept
328 rdfs:label Proteolysis
329 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
330 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
331 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
332 skos:definition Proteolysis is the enzymatic process by which proteins are degraded into their component polypeptide or amino acid parts. This generally occurs through protease-mediated hydrolysis of peptide bonds, but can also occur through non-enzymatic methods such as by action of mineral acids and heat.
333 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
334 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/deubiquitylating-enzymes
335 sg:ontologies/subjects/er-associated-degradation
336 sg:ontologies/subjects/lysosomes
337 sg:ontologies/subjects/neddylation
338 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteasome
339 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-quality-control
340 sg:ontologies/subjects/sumoylation
341 sg:ontologies/subjects/ubiquitin-ligases
342 sg:ontologies/subjects/ubiquitylation
343 skos:prefLabel Proteolysis
344 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteomics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
345 rdf:type npg:Subject
346 skos:Concept
347 rdfs:label Proteomics
348 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
349 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
350 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
351 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
352 skos:definition Proteomics refers to the study of proteomes, but is also used to describe the techniques used to determine the entire set of proteins of an organism or system, such as protein purification and mass spectrometry.
353 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
354 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-protein-interaction-networks
355 skos:prefLabel Proteomics
356 sg:ontologies/subjects/riboswitches sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
357 rdf:type npg:Subject
358 skos:Concept
359 rdfs:label Riboswitches
360 skos:altLabel Ribosensor
361 Ribosensors
362 Riboswitch
363 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
364 skos:definition A riboswitch is a regulatory segment within a messenger RNA (mRNA) that binds to specific metabolites and modifies the expression of the riboswitch-containing mRNA’s protein product. Riboswitches are used by bacteria to maintain specific levels of a given metabolite, by regulating the expression of the protein responsible for its accumulation.
365 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
366 skos:prefLabel Riboswitches
367 sg:ontologies/subjects/ribozymes sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
368 rdf:type npg:Subject
369 skos:Concept
370 rdfs:label Ribozymes
371 skos:altLabel Catalytic RNA
372 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
373 skos:definition A ribozyme is a ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecule with the ability to catalyze a biochemical reaction – a function more commonly carried out by proteins. It is generally believed that ribozymes were the first molecules to exhibit catalytic properties, predating the emergence of protein enzymes during evolution.
374 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
375 skos:prefLabel Ribozymes
376 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-metabolism sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
377 rdf:type npg:Subject
378 skos:Concept
379 rdfs:label RNA metabolism
380 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
381 skos:definition RNA metabolism refers to any events in the life cycle of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules, including their synthesis, folding/unfolding, modification, processing and degradation.
382 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
383 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/alternative-splicing
384 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-decay
385 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-editing
386 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-folding
387 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-modification
388 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-quality-control
389 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-splicing
390 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-transport
391 skos:prefLabel RNA metabolism
392 sg:ontologies/subjects/rnai sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
393 rdf:type npg:Subject
394 skos:Concept
395 rdfs:label RNAi
396 skos:altLabel Co Suppression
397 Co-Suppression
398 Cosuppression
399 Post Transcriptional Gene Silencing
400 Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing
401 Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencings
402 Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing
403 RNA Interference
404 RNA Silencing
405 RNA interference
406 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cytological-techniques
407 sg:ontologies/subjects/functional-genomics
408 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetics
409 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
410 skos:definition RNAi (RNA interference) is a biological process in which RNA molecules—microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA)—inhibit gene expression, typically by binding to messenger RNA (mRNA) and triggering its degradation. The process is exploited by researchers to knock down gene expression in cell culture and in vivo in model organisms.
411 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
412 skos:prefLabel RNAi
413 sg:ontologies/subjects/single-molecule-biophysics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
414 rdf:type npg:Subject
415 skos:Concept
416 rdfs:label Single-molecule biophysics
417 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biophysics
418 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
419 skos:definition Single-molecule biophysics is the study of the dynamics and interactions of individual biomolecules to understand how they carry out their functions in living cells. For example, monitoring the folding properties of single protein or RNA molecules helps reveal how they are transported across cellular membranes.
420 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
421 skos:prefLabel Single-molecule biophysics
422 sg:ontologies/subjects/transcription sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
423 rdf:type npg:Subject
424 skos:Concept
425 rdfs:label Transcription
426 skos:altLabel Early Gene Transcription
427 Genetic Transcription
428 Late Gene Transcription
429 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
430 skos:definition Transcription is the process by which an RNA polymerase synthesizes ribonucleic acid (RNA) using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as a template.
431 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
432 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/transcriptional-regulatory-elements
433 skos:prefLabel Transcription
434 sg:ontologies/subjects/transcriptomics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
435 rdf:type npg:Subject
436 skos:Concept
437 rdfs:label Transcriptomics
438 skos:altLabel Gene Expression Monitoring
439 Gene Expression Monitorings
440 Gene Expression Pattern Analysis
441 Gene Expression Profile
442 Gene Expression Profiles
443 Gene Expression Profiling
444 Gene Expression Profilings
445 Gene Expression Signature
446 Gene Expression Signatures
447 Transcript Expression Analyses
448 Transcript Expression Analysis
449 Transcriptomes
450 mRNA Differential Display
451 mRNA Differential Displays
452 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/genomics
453 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
454 skos:definition Transcriptomics is the study of the transcriptome—the complete set of RNA transcripts that are produced by the genome, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell—using high-throughput methods, such as microarray analysis. Comparison of transcriptomes allows the identification of genes that are differentially expressed in distinct cell populations, or in response to different treatments.
455 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
456 skos:prefLabel Transcriptomics
457 sg:ontologies/subjects/translation sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
458 rdf:type npg:Subject
459 skos:Concept
460 rdfs:label Translation
461 skos:altLabel Genetic Translation
462 Genetic Translations
463 Ribosomal Peptide Biosynthesis
464 Ribosomal Protein Biosynthesis
465 Ribosomal Protein Synthesis
466 mRNA Translation
467 mRNA Translations
468 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
469 skos:definition Translation is the process by which a protein is synthesized by the ribosome, using a messenger RNA (mRNA) template.
470 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
471 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/ribosome
472 sg:ontologies/subjects/trnas
473 skos:prefLabel Translation
474 sg:ontologies/subjects/transposition sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
475 rdf:type npg:Subject
476 skos:Concept
477 rdfs:label Transposition
478 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
479 skos:definition Transposition is the process by which a DNA segment moves from a donor to a recipient DNA molecule. It occurs by cutting both strands of the donor and target DNA duplexes, followed by covalently joining the ends of the mobile segment to those of the target site.
480 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
481 skos:prefLabel Transposition
482 skos:Concept sgo:sdDataset for_codes
483 rdf:type rdfs:Class
484 rdfs:Resource
485 rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:Resource
486 skos:Concept
 




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