Enzymes


Ontology type: npg:Subject  | skos:Concept     


Concept Info

NAME

Enzymes

DESCRIPTION

Enzymes catalyze nearly all of the chemical reactions that occur in biological systems. Enzymes are generally proteins but also include catalytic DNA and catalytic RNA. As effective biological catalysts, enzymes work by lowering a reaction’s activation energy barrier, thereby increasing the rate of the reaction. They also improve the specificity of the reactions.

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Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/enzymes'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/enzymes'

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curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/enzymes'

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This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

352 TRIPLES      10 PREDICATES      29 URIs      5 LITERALS

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47 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
48 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemistry
49 skos:definition Biochemistry is the study of the structure and function of biological molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. Biochemistry is also used to describe techniques suited to understanding the interactions and functions of biological molecules, including traditional techniques such as Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation, and chromatography methods.
50 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
51 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/biocatalysis
52 sg:ontologies/subjects/biogeochemistry
53 sg:ontologies/subjects/bioinorganic-chemistry
54 sg:ontologies/subjects/biophysical-chemistry
55 sg:ontologies/subjects/carbohydrates
56 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-modification
57 sg:ontologies/subjects/cytokines
58 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna
59 sg:ontologies/subjects/enzyme-mechanisms
60 sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
61 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycobiology
62 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycomics
63 sg:ontologies/subjects/histocytochemistry
64 sg:ontologies/subjects/hormones
65 sg:ontologies/subjects/immunochemistry
66 sg:ontologies/subjects/ion-channels
67 sg:ontologies/subjects/isoenzymes
68 sg:ontologies/subjects/kinases
69 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipidomics
70 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipids
71 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolomics
72 sg:ontologies/subjects/metals
73 sg:ontologies/subjects/neurochemistry
74 sg:ontologies/subjects/peptides
75 sg:ontologies/subjects/prions
76 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteases
77 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-folding
78 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
79 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteolysis
80 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteomics
81 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna
82 sg:ontologies/subjects/structural-biology
83 skos:prefLabel Biochemistry
84 sg:ontologies/subjects/catalytic-dna sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
85 rdf:type npg:Subject
86 skos:Concept
87 rdfs:label Catalytic DNA
88 skos:altLabel DNAzyme
89 DNAzymes
90 Deoxyribozyme
91 Deoxyribozymes
92 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
93 skos:definition Catalytic DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) are single-stranded DNA molecules with enzyme activity, for instance in cleaving RNA. Binding of catalytic DNA to its RNA targets is generally by Watson–Crick base pairing. Catalytic DNA can also target proteins and DNA with a range of outcomes, for instance as a peroxidase. Non-natural catalytic DNA molecules have been designed or discovered.
94 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
95 skos:prefLabel Catalytic DNA
96 sg:ontologies/subjects/catalytic-rna sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
97 rdf:type npg:Subject
98 skos:Concept
99 rdfs:label Catalytic RNA
100 skos:altLabel Ribozyme
101 Ribozymes
102 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
103 skos:definition Catalytic RNA (ribonucleic acid) are RNA molecules that have enzyme activity. The classic example is the hammerhead ribozyme. Catalytic RNAs are involved in a number of biological processes, including RNA processing and protein synthesis. Discovery of catalytic RNA contributed to the hypothesis of an 'RNA world', describing the origin of life as starting from RNA.
104 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
105 skos:prefLabel Catalytic RNA
106 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
107 rdf:type npg:Subject
108 skos:Concept
109 rdfs:label Chemical biology
110 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
111 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemistry
112 skos:definition Chemical biology is the study of the chemicals and chemical reactions involved in biological processes, incorporating the disciplines of bioorganic chemistry, biochemistry, cell biology and pharmacology. Chemicals – including natural small molecules, such as lipids, carbohydrates and metals, or non-natural probe or drug molecules – are used to gain insight into biological problems at a mechanistic level.
113 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
114 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/biocatalysis
115 sg:ontologies/subjects/biophysical-chemistry
116 sg:ontologies/subjects/biosynthesis
117 sg:ontologies/subjects/carbohydrates
118 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-ecology
119 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-genetics
120 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-libraries
121 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-modification
122 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-tools
123 sg:ontologies/subjects/cheminformatics
124 sg:ontologies/subjects/combinatorial-libraries
125 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-chemistry
126 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna
127 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-delivery
128 sg:ontologies/subjects/enzyme-mechanisms
129 sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
130 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycobiology
131 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycomics
132 sg:ontologies/subjects/ion-channels
133 sg:ontologies/subjects/kinases
134 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipidomics
135 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipids
136 sg:ontologies/subjects/mechanism-of-action
137 sg:ontologies/subjects/membranes
138 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolic-pathways
139 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolomics
140 sg:ontologies/subjects/metals
141 sg:ontologies/subjects/natural-products
142 sg:ontologies/subjects/networks-and-systems-biology
143 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acids
144 sg:ontologies/subjects/peptides
145 sg:ontologies/subjects/pharmacology
146 sg:ontologies/subjects/post-translational-modifications
147 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteases
148 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-design
149 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-folding
150 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
151 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteomics
152 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna
153 sg:ontologies/subjects/screening
154 sg:ontologies/subjects/small-molecules
155 sg:ontologies/subjects/synthetic-biology
156 sg:ontologies/subjects/target-identification
157 sg:ontologies/subjects/target-validation
158 sg:ontologies/subjects/transporters
159 skos:prefLabel Chemical biology
160 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-repair-enzymes sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
161 rdf:type npg:Subject
162 skos:Concept
163 rdfs:label DNA repair enzymes
164 skos:altLabel DNA repair enzyme
165 Deoxyribonucleic acid repair enzyme
166 Deoxyribonucleic acid repair enzymes
167 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
168 skos:definition DNA repair enzymes are enzymes that recognize and correct physical damage in DNA, caused by exposure to radiation, UV light or reactive oxygen species. The correction of DNA damage alleviates loss of genetic information, generation of double-strand breaks, and DNA crosslinkages. DNA repair enzymes recognize DNA damage or a nearby site, or enable repair.
169 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
170 skos:prefLabel DNA repair enzymes
171 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-restriction-modification-enzymes sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
172 rdf:type npg:Subject
173 skos:Concept
174 rdfs:label DNA restriction-modification enzymes
175 skos:altLabel DNA Restriction Modification Enzymes
176 DNA restriction modification enzyme
177 DNA restriction modification enzymes
178 DNA restriction-modification enzyme
179 Deoxyribonucleic acid restriction modification enzyme
180 Deoxyribonucleic acid restriction-modification enzyme
181 Restriction Modification Systems
182 Restriction-Modification Systems
183 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
184 skos:definition DNA restriction-modification enzymes are enzymes involved in DNA restriction modification. They include DNA restriction endonucleases (restriction enzymes) and their companion modification methylase restriction enzymes, DNA methyltransferases and related proteins, which are generally found together in a multi-protein complex. DNA restriction-modification systems in bacteria protect cells against parasitic infection.
185 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
186 skos:prefLabel DNA restriction-modification enzymes
187 sg:ontologies/subjects/holoenzymes sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
188 rdf:type npg:Subject
189 skos:Concept
190 rdfs:label Holoenzymes
191 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
192 skos:definition Holoenzymes are the active forms of enzymes. Enzymes that require a cofactor but are not bound by one are called apoenzymes. Holoenzymes represent the apoenzyme bound to its necessary cofactors or prosthetic groups.
193 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
194 skos:prefLabel Holoenzymes
195 sg:ontologies/subjects/hydrolases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
196 rdf:type npg:Subject
197 skos:Concept
198 rdfs:label Hydrolases
199 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
200 skos:definition Hydrolases are enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a covalent bond using water. Types of hydrolase include esterases, such as phosphatases, that act on ester bonds, and proteases or peptidases that act on amide bonds in peptides.
201 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
202 skos:prefLabel Hydrolases
203 sg:ontologies/subjects/immobilized-enzymes sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
204 rdf:type npg:Subject
205 skos:Concept
206 rdfs:label Immobilized enzymes
207 skos:altLabel Immobilized Enzyme
208 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
209 skos:definition Immobilized enzymes are enzymes that have been attached, either through adsorption or crosslinking, to a solid support for experimentation or industrial purposes; for example, generating large quantities of products through biosynthesis. The inert, water-insoluble calcium alginate, as well as water-soluble matrices, can serve as the immobilization substrate.
210 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
211 skos:prefLabel Immobilized enzymes
212 sg:ontologies/subjects/isoenzymes sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
213 rdf:type npg:Subject
214 skos:Concept
215 rdfs:label Isoenzymes
216 skos:altLabel Alloenzymes
217 Allozymes
218 Isozymes
219 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
220 sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
221 skos:definition Isoenzymes are closely related variants of the same enzyme – so with the same catalytic function, but with different amino acid sequences due to being encoded by different alleles of the same gene. Isoenzymes generally differ in their kinetic and/or thermodynamic properties.
222 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
223 skos:prefLabel Isoenzymes
224 sg:ontologies/subjects/isomerases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
225 rdf:type npg:Subject
226 skos:Concept
227 rdfs:label Isomerases
228 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
229 skos:definition Isomerases are enzymes that catalyze the isomerization of a molecule. This process involves the change in bond connectivity or spatial arrangements within a single substrate molecule, generating a product with the same chemical formula described as an isomer.
230 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
231 skos:prefLabel Isomerases
232 sg:ontologies/subjects/kinases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
233 rdf:type npg:Subject
234 skos:Concept
235 rdfs:label Kinases
236 skos:altLabel ATP Phosphotransferases
237 Kinase
238 Phosphotransferases
239 Transphosphorylases
240 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
241 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
242 sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
243 skos:definition Kinases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of a phosphate group (PO43−) to substrates, usually proteins. The phosphate generally comes from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Kinases and phosphatases, which remove phosphate groups, are involved in nearly all signal transduction processes, often with cascades of phosphorylation events.
244 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
245 skos:prefLabel Kinases
246 sg:ontologies/subjects/ligases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
247 rdf:type npg:Subject
248 skos:Concept
249 rdfs:label Ligases
250 skos:altLabel Synthetase
251 Synthetases
252 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
253 skos:definition Ligases are enzymes that catalyze the formation of chemical bonds, for instance C–O, C–N, C–S bonds, between two macromolecules, such as proteins or peptides, usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or another high-energy donor.
254 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
255 skos:prefLabel Ligases
256 sg:ontologies/subjects/multienzyme-complexes sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
257 rdf:type npg:Subject
258 skos:Concept
259 rdfs:label Multienzyme complexes
260 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
261 skos:definition Multienzyme complexes are stable assemblies of more than one enzyme, generally involved in sequential catalytic transformations. These are distinct from a multienzyme polypeptide, in which multiple catalytic domains are found in a single polypeptide chain. Fatty-acyl-CoA Synthase is an example of six enzymes that assemble in a barrel shape to generate fatty acids.
262 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
263 skos:prefLabel Multienzyme complexes
264 sg:ontologies/subjects/oxidoreductases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
265 rdf:type npg:Subject
266 skos:Concept
267 rdfs:label Oxidoreductases
268 skos:altLabel Dehydrogenase
269 Dehydrogenases
270 Oxidase
271 Oxidases
272 Reductase
273 Reductases
274 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
275 skos:definition Oxidoreductases are enzymes that catalyze transfer of electrons from a donor (reductant) to an acceptor (oxidant) molecule, generally using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as cofactors. The name of the oxidoreductase generally takes the form of '[acceptor name] dehydrogenase'.
276 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
277 skos:prefLabel Oxidoreductases
278 sg:ontologies/subjects/penicillin-binding-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
279 rdf:type npg:Subject
280 skos:Concept
281 rdfs:label Penicillin-binding proteins
282 skos:altLabel Penicillin Binding Protein
283 Penicillin Binding Protein 1
284 Penicillin Binding Protein 1A
285 Penicillin Binding Protein 1b
286 Penicillin Binding Protein 2
287 Penicillin Binding Protein 2a
288 Penicillin Binding Protein 2b
289 Penicillin Binding Protein 3
290 Penicillin Binding Protein 4
291 Penicillin Binding Protein 5
292 Penicillin Binding Protein 6
293 Penicillin Binding Protein 7
294 Penicillin Binding Proteins
295 Penicillin-Binding Protein
296 Penicillin-Binding Protein 1
297 Penicillin-Binding Protein 1A
298 Penicillin-Binding Protein 1b
299 Penicillin-Binding Protein 2
300 Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a
301 Penicillin-Binding Protein 2b
302 Penicillin-Binding Protein 3
303 Penicillin-Binding Protein 4
304 Penicillin-Binding Protein 5
305 Penicillin-Binding Protein 6
306 Penicillin-Binding Protein 7
307 Penicillin-Binding Protein-2a
308 Peptidoglycan Synthetase
309 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
310 skos:definition Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are bacterial proteins that bind to penicillin and other antibiotics of the β-lactam class. Penicillin-binding proteins are generally enzymes involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, so contribute essential roles in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. PBPs bind β-lactam antibiotics because their chemical structure is similar to that of the sugar–amino acid backbone that forms peptidoglycan.
311 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
312 skos:prefLabel Penicillin-binding proteins
313 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
314 rdf:type npg:Subject
315 skos:Concept
316 rdfs:label Proteases
317 skos:altLabel Esteroproteases
318 Peptidases
319 Peptide Hydrolases
320 Proteinases
321 Proteolytic Enzymes
322 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
323 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
324 sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
325 skos:definition Proteases are enzymes that catalyse hydrolysis of the peptide and isopeptide bonds that join amino acids within proteins (known as proteolysis). Proteases can also remove protein post-translational modifications. Exopeptidases remove the terminal amino acids from the protein chain and endopeptidases attack an internal peptide bond, as in trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, elastase and papain.
326 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
327 skos:prefLabel Proteases
328 sg:ontologies/subjects/recombinases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
329 rdf:type npg:Subject
330 skos:Concept
331 rdfs:label Recombinases
332 skos:altLabel Recombinase
333 Resolvase
334 Resolvases
335 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
336 skos:definition Recombinases are enzymes that catalyse site-specific recombination events within DNA; for example, genetic recombination during meiosis in which recombination serves to generate new combinations of alleles on chromosomes. DNA recombination events involve DNA breakage, strand exchange between homologous segments and rejoining of the DNA by DNA ligases. Recombinases also function in recombinational DNA repair.
337 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
338 skos:prefLabel Recombinases
339 sg:ontologies/subjects/transferases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
340 rdf:type npg:Subject
341 skos:Concept
342 rdfs:label Transferases
343 skos:altLabel Transferase
344 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
345 skos:definition Transferases are enzymes that catalyse the transfer of a functional group from a donor molecule, often a coenzyme, to an acceptor molecule. These include methyltransferases and formyltransferases for transferring single-carbon groups – methyl (CH3) and formyl (CHO) groups respectively – and transaldolases for transferring a three carbon ketol group.
346 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
347 skos:prefLabel Transferases
348 skos:Concept sgo:sdDataset for_codes
349 rdf:type rdfs:Class
350 rdfs:Resource
351 rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:Resource
352 skos:Concept
 




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