Chemical biology


Ontology type: npg:Subject  | skos:Concept     


Concept Info

NAME

Chemical biology

DESCRIPTION

Chemical biology is the study of the chemicals and chemical reactions involved in biological processes, incorporating the disciplines of bioorganic chemistry, biochemistry, cell biology and pharmacology. Chemicals – including natural small molecules, such as lipids, carbohydrates and metals, or non-natural probe or drug molecules – are used to gain insight into biological problems at a mechanistic level.

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Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

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This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

789 TRIPLES      9 PREDICATES      56 URIs      4 LITERALS

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
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4 skos:Concept
5 rdfs:label Chemical biology
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8 skos:definition Chemical biology is the study of the chemicals and chemical reactions involved in biological processes, incorporating the disciplines of bioorganic chemistry, biochemistry, cell biology and pharmacology. Chemicals – including natural small molecules, such as lipids, carbohydrates and metals, or non-natural probe or drug molecules – are used to gain insight into biological problems at a mechanistic level.
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55 skos:prefLabel Chemical biology
56 sg:ontologies/subjects/ dcterms:description The Nature Subjects Taxonomy is a polyhierarchical categorization of scholarly subject areas which are used for the indexing of content by Springer Nature.
57 dcterms:title Nature Subjects Taxonomy
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76 skos:definition Biocatalysis is the chemical process through which enzymes or other biological catalysts perform reactions between organic components. Biocatalysis has been used widely in the pharmaceutical industry to make small molecule drugs.
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90 skos:definition Biological sciences encompasses all the divisions of natural sciences examining various aspects of vital processes. The concept includes anatomy, physiology, cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics, and covers all organisms from microorganisms, animals to plants.
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125 skos:definition Biophysical chemistry is the study of the physical properties of biological macromolecules at either a chemical sequence level or a more global structural level. Biophysical chemistry is also used to describe techniques suited to understanding the physical properties of biological molecules at a chemical level, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.
126 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
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128 sg:ontologies/subjects/biosynthesis sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
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137 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemistry
138 skos:definition Biosynthesis is the generation of natural products through enzymatic reactions, as in cellular metabolism. Successive enzymatic reactions by a number of enzymes are generally required to achieve a single biologically active compound. Biosynthesis can be exploited for chemical synthesis in vitro or in cells like Escherichia coli by combining substrates with enzymes using recombinant methods.
139 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
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145 skos:altLabel Saccharides
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149 skos:definition Carbohydrates (also known as sugars) are molecules consisting of a basic unit, usually a six-membered ring, containing carbon and oxygen, either alone (monosaccharides) or joined together (disaccharides, oligosaccharides, or polysaccharides). They have various biological functions, including energy storage, protein modification and regulation, and act as structural components of cell membranes.
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161 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-ecology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
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163 skos:Concept
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165 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
166 skos:definition Chemical ecology is the study integrating chemistry and biology to examine the chemical interactions among organisms and their environment. It includes signalling processes and communication between individuals, for instance in hormone responses.
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169 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-genetics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
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172 rdfs:label Chemical genetics
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174 skos:definition Chemical genetics is the use of small molecule compounds to perturb a biological system to explore the outcome. Chemical genetics is also used to describe the technique of screening for small molecule modulators. As in classical genetics, the perturbation of a system using small molecules reveals information about the targeted system.
175 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
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177 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-libraries sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
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179 skos:Concept
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181 skos:altLabel Molecular Libraries
182 Molecular library
183 Molecule libraries
184 Molecule library
185 Screening libraries
186 Screening library
187 Small Molecular Libraries
188 Small Molecule Libraries
189 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
190 sg:ontologies/subjects/medicinal-chemistry
191 sg:ontologies/subjects/synthesis
192 skos:definition Chemical libraries are collections of molecules that are synthesized with the aim that they represent a given fraction of the theoretically possible chemical compounds that have yet been made. Research is focused on both the generation of libraries and on new methodology to screen them in the search for new or improved properties.
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201 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
202 skos:definition Chemical modification describes the modification, addition or removal, through chemical reaction, of any of a variety of macromolecules, including proteins and nucleic acids. It refers to the use of chemical reagents in vitro rather than to post-translational modification of biological molecules during biosynthesis in vivo.
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209 skos:altLabel Chemical probes
210 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
211 skos:definition Chemical tools are small molecules used as probes of a chemical or biological process. Studying the effects of chemical tools on a system can lead to new insight into the molecular target of the small molecule and the pathways it acts in. Chemical probes with defined targets can be attractive as drugs in clinical pharmacology.
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221 skos:definition Cheminformatics is the use of computational and informational techniques to understand problems of chemistry, for instance in the in silico mapping of chemical space – the theoretical space occupied by all possible chemicals and molecules. Cheminformatics strategies are useful in drug discovery and other efforts where large numbers of compounds are being evaluated for specific properties.
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228 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/physical-sciences
229 skos:definition Chemistry is a branch of science that involves the study of the composition, structure and properties of matter. Often known as the central science, it is a creative discipline chiefly concerned with atomic and molecular structure and its change, for instance through chemical reactions.
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270 skos:definition Combinatorial libraries are collections of chemical compounds, small molecules or macromolecules such as proteins, synthesized by combinatorial chemistry, in which multiple different combinations of related chemical species are reacted together in similar chemical reactions. Chemical synthesis methods are used to generate large groups of compounds that can themselves be elaborated in a similar combinatorial fashion.
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280 skos:definition Computational chemistry describes the use of computer modelling and simulation – including ab initio approaches based on quantum chemistry, and empirical approaches – to study the structures and properties of molecules and materials. Computational chemistry is also used to describe the computational techniques aimed at understanding the structure and properties of molecules and materials.
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294 skos:definition DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the nucleic acid polymer that forms the genetic code for a cell or virus. Most DNA molecules consist of two polymers (double-stranded) of four nucleotides that each consist of a nucleobase, the carbohydrate deoxyribose and a phosphate group, where the carbohydrate and phosphate make up the backbone of the polymer.
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317 skos:definition Enzyme mechanisms are the chemical transformations, and the steps within them, generated by enzymatic action on substrates. The mechanism of enzyme catalysis is similar in principle to other types of chemical catalysis, for instance by involving a combination of several different types of catalysis. Determining enzyme mechanisms includes determining their kinetic and thermodynamic properties.
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376 Ionic Channels
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380 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
381 skos:definition Ion channels are integral membrane protein assemblies that modulate the flow of ions into and out of a cell or organelle, leading to generation of electrical signals. Opening (gating) of ion channels can occur upon stimulation with ligands such as second messengers, voltage, temperature and mechanical stress. The directionality of channels is dictated by the electrochemical gradient.
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396 skos:altLabel ATP Phosphotransferases
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398 Phosphotransferases
399 Transphosphorylases
400 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
401 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
402 sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
403 skos:definition Kinases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of a phosphate group (PO43−) to substrates, usually proteins. The phosphate generally comes from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Kinases and phosphatases, which remove phosphate groups, are involved in nearly all signal transduction processes, often with cascades of phosphorylation events.
404 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
405 skos:prefLabel Kinases
406 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipidomics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
407 rdf:type npg:Subject
408 skos:Concept
409 rdfs:label Lipidomics
410 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
411 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
412 skos:definition Lipidomics is the study of the structure and function of the complete set of lipids (the lipidome) produced in a given cell or organism as well as their interactions with other lipids, proteins and metabolites.
413 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
414 skos:prefLabel Lipidomics
415 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipids sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
416 rdf:type npg:Subject
417 skos:Concept
418 rdfs:label Lipids
419 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
420 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
421 skos:definition Lipids are hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules that include sterols, waxes, fatty acids and phospholipids, and are insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvent. Biological lipids are generated from ketoacyl and isoprene (CH2=C(CH3)CH=CH2) groups and include glycerolipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids and polyketides. Lipids play roles in energy storage, signalling and as structural components.
422 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
423 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/ceroid
424 sg:ontologies/subjects/fats
425 sg:ontologies/subjects/fatty-acids
426 sg:ontologies/subjects/fatty-alcohols
427 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycerides
428 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycolipids
429 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipid-peroxides
430 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipofuscin
431 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipopeptides
432 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipopolysaccharides
433 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipoproteins
434 sg:ontologies/subjects/membrane-lipids
435 sg:ontologies/subjects/oils
436 sg:ontologies/subjects/phospholipids
437 sg:ontologies/subjects/polyhydroxyalkanoates
438 sg:ontologies/subjects/sphingolipids
439 sg:ontologies/subjects/sterols
440 sg:ontologies/subjects/waxes
441 skos:prefLabel Lipids
442 sg:ontologies/subjects/mechanism-of-action sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
443 rdf:type npg:Subject
444 skos:Concept
445 rdfs:label Mechanism of action
446 skos:altLabel Mode of action
447 Pharmacodynamics
448 Pharmacologic action
449 Pharmacology
450 mode of action
451 pharmacodynamics
452 pharmacologic action
453 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
454 skos:definition Mechanism of action describes the process by which a molecule, such as a drug, functions to produce a pharmacological effect. A drug’s mechanism of action may refer to its effects on a biological readout such as cell growth, or its interaction and modulation of its direct biomolecular target, for example a protein or nucleic acid.
455 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
456 skos:prefLabel Mechanism of action
457 sg:ontologies/subjects/membranes sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
458 rdf:type npg:Subject
459 skos:Concept
460 rdfs:label Membranes
461 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
462 skos:definition Membranes, including the cell or plasma membrane and cytoplasmic membranes, serve to contain the contents of cells and their organelles, and consist of lipids and proteins. The lipids – which include phospholipids, glycolipids and sterols – form a bilayer, in which hydrophobic phospholipid tails join end to end, leaving the hydrophilic heads exposed to the outside.
463 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
464 skos:prefLabel Membranes
465 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolic-pathways sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
466 rdf:type npg:Subject
467 skos:Concept
468 rdfs:label Metabolic pathways
469 skos:altLabel Anabolism
470 Catabolism
471 Metabolic Process
472 Metabolic Processes
473 Metabolic pathway
474 Metabolism
475 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
476 skos:definition Metabolic pathways are enzyme-mediated biochemical reactions that lead to biosynthesis (anabolism) or breakdown (catabolism) of natural product small molecules within a cell or tissue. The glycolysis and Krebs cycle metabolic pathways, in aerobic respiration, produce precursors of various important cellular molecules such as the primary metabolite ATP; other metabolic pathways produce secondary metabolites.
477 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
478 skos:prefLabel Metabolic pathways
479 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolomics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
480 rdf:type npg:Subject
481 skos:Concept
482 rdfs:label Metabolomics
483 skos:altLabel Metabolomic
484 Metabonomic
485 Metabonomics
486 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
487 sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques
488 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
489 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
490 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolism
491 skos:definition Metabolomics refers to the systematic identification and quantification of the small molecule metabolic products (the metabolome) of a biological system (cell, tissue, organ, biological fluid, or organism) at a specific point in time. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy are the techniques most often used for metabolome profiling.
492 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
493 skos:prefLabel Metabolomics
494 sg:ontologies/subjects/metals sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
495 rdf:type npg:Subject
496 skos:Concept
497 rdfs:label Metals
498 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
499 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
500 skos:definition Metals are electropositive chemical elements, and as such have a propensity to form cations, which they are found as – often bound in metalloproteins – in living systems. Many metals play important roles in living systems; for instance sodium and potassium, which are important for maintaining osmotic equilibrium, as well as calcium, magnesium, iron and copper.
501 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
502 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/calcium
503 sg:ontologies/subjects/iron
504 sg:ontologies/subjects/magnesium
505 sg:ontologies/subjects/potassium
506 sg:ontologies/subjects/sodium
507 skos:prefLabel Metals
508 sg:ontologies/subjects/natural-products sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
509 rdf:type npg:Subject
510 skos:Concept
511 rdfs:label Natural products
512 skos:altLabel Biologic Products
513 Biological Products
514 Biologics
515 Natural Product
516 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
517 skos:definition Natural products are small molecules produced naturally by any organism including primary and secondary metabolites. They include very small molecules, such as urea, and complex structures, such as Taxol. As they may only be isolable in small quantities, have interesting biological activity and chemical structures, natural product synthesis poses an interesting challenge in organic chemistry.
518 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
519 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/natural-product-synthesis
520 skos:prefLabel Natural products
521 sg:ontologies/subjects/networks-and-systems-biology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
522 rdf:type npg:Subject
523 skos:Concept
524 rdfs:label Networks and systems biology
525 skos:altLabel Systems Biology
526 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
527 skos:definition Networks and systems biology is the study of complex systems by a holistic approach where the 'omics approaches such as transcriptomics, glycomics and lipidomics find wide use. Networks and systems biology aims to understand the networks of interactions and effects of those interactions on a global scale, involving hundreds of different biological molecules simultaneously.
528 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
529 skos:prefLabel Networks and systems biology
530 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acids sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
531 rdf:type npg:Subject
532 skos:Concept
533 rdfs:label Nucleic acids
534 skos:altLabel Nucleic acid
535 Polynucleotide
536 Polynucleotides
537 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
538 skos:definition Nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) are polymers of nucleotides – each nucleotide consists of a pentose sugar, a phosphate group and one of the nitrogenous bases (purines and pyrimidines). Nucleic acids function in encoding, transmitting and expressing genetic information in either the double-stranded form (mostly for DNA) or in single-stranded form (mostly for RNA).
539 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
540 skos:prefLabel Nucleic acids
541 sg:ontologies/subjects/peptides sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
542 rdf:type npg:Subject
543 skos:Concept
544 rdfs:label Peptides
545 skos:altLabel Polypeptides
546 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
547 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
548 skos:definition Peptides are amino acid polymers. They are generally much smaller than proteins and don’t have sufficient activity on their own – they generally represent a small portion of a full protein. They may also be signalling molecules that act through interaction with specific receptors, as in peptide hormones and cytokines.
549 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
550 skos:prefLabel Peptides
551 sg:ontologies/subjects/pharmacology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
552 rdf:type npg:Subject
553 skos:Concept
554 rdfs:label Pharmacology
555 skos:altLabel Pharmacologies
556 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
557 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-discovery
558 sg:ontologies/subjects/medicinal-chemistry
559 skos:definition Pharmacology is a branch of biomedical science, encompassing clinical pharmacology, that is concerned with the effects of drugs/pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics on living systems, as well as their development and chemical properties.
560 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
561 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/clinical-pharmacology
562 sg:ontologies/subjects/pharmacodynamics
563 sg:ontologies/subjects/pharmacogenetics
564 sg:ontologies/subjects/pharmacokinetics
565 sg:ontologies/subjects/receptor-pharmacology
566 skos:prefLabel Pharmacology
567 sg:ontologies/subjects/post-translational-modifications sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
568 rdf:type npg:Subject
569 skos:Concept
570 rdfs:label Post-translational modifications
571 skos:altLabel Post Translational Amino Acid Modification
572 Post Translational Modifications
573 Post Translational Protein Modification
574 Post Translational Protein Processing
575 Post-Translational Amino Acid Modification
576 Post-Translational Modification
577 Post-Translational Protein Modification
578 Post-Translational Protein Modifications
579 Post-Translational Protein Processing
580 Posttranslational Amino Acid Modification
581 Posttranslational Modification
582 Posttranslational Modifications
583 Posttranslational Protein Processing
584 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
585 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
586 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
587 skos:definition Post-translational modifications are modifications that occur on a protein, catalysed by enzymes, after its translation by ribosomes is complete. Post-translational modification generally refers to the addition of a functional group covalently to a protein as in phosphorylation and neddylation, but also refers to proteolytic processing and folding processes necessary for a protein to mature functionally.
588 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
589 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/acetylation
590 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycosylation
591 sg:ontologies/subjects/methylation
592 sg:ontologies/subjects/neddylation
593 sg:ontologies/subjects/nitrosylation
594 sg:ontologies/subjects/phosphorylation
595 sg:ontologies/subjects/polyadp-ribosylation
596 sg:ontologies/subjects/prenylation
597 sg:ontologies/subjects/sumoylation
598 sg:ontologies/subjects/ubiquitylation
599 skos:prefLabel Post-translational modifications
600 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
601 rdf:type npg:Subject
602 skos:Concept
603 rdfs:label Proteases
604 skos:altLabel Esteroproteases
605 Peptidases
606 Peptide Hydrolases
607 Proteinases
608 Proteolytic Enzymes
609 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
610 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
611 sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
612 skos:definition Proteases are enzymes that catalyse hydrolysis of the peptide and isopeptide bonds that join amino acids within proteins (known as proteolysis). Proteases can also remove protein post-translational modifications. Exopeptidases remove the terminal amino acids from the protein chain and endopeptidases attack an internal peptide bond, as in trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, elastase and papain.
613 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
614 skos:prefLabel Proteases
615 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-design sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
616 rdf:type npg:Subject
617 skos:Concept
618 rdfs:label Protein design
619 skos:altLabel Directed Evolution
620 Protein Engineering
621 Protein Evolution
622 Rational Design
623 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
624 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-biology-and-bioinformatics
625 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering
626 skos:definition Protein design (or protein engineering) is a technique by which proteins with enhanced or novel functional properties are created. Proteins can be engineered by rational design, which typically uses computational tools to identify useful mutations, or by directed evolution, which uses random mutagenesis coupled with a selection process to identify desired variants.
627 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
628 skos:prefLabel Protein design
629 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-folding sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
630 rdf:type npg:Subject
631 skos:Concept
632 rdfs:label Protein folding
633 skos:altLabel Globular Protein Folding
634 Globular Protein Foldings
635 Protein Foldings
636 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
637 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
638 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
639 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-biology-and-bioinformatics
640 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
641 skos:definition Protein folding is the process by which proteins achieve their mature functional (native) tertiary structure, and often begins co-translationally. Protein folding requires chaperones and often involves stepwise establishment of regular secondary and supersecondary structures, namely α-helices and β-sheets, that fold rapidly, stabilized by hydrogen bonding and disulphide bridges, and then tertiary structure.
642 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
643 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/chaperones
644 sg:ontologies/subjects/endoplasmic-reticulum
645 sg:ontologies/subjects/prions
646 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-aggregation
647 skos:prefLabel Protein folding
648 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
649 rdf:type npg:Subject
650 skos:Concept
651 rdfs:label Proteins
652 skos:altLabel Gene Proteins
653 Protein
654 Protein Gene Products
655 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
656 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
657 skos:definition Proteins are biopolymers of amino acids (polypeptides), joined by peptide bonds, that are generated by ribosomes. The amino acid sequence, encoded by its gene, determines a protein’s structure and function. Newly synthesized proteins can be modified by post-translational modification, altering its protein folding, stability and activity. Proteins often associate into protein–protein interaction networks for function.
658 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
659 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/acetyltransferases
660 sg:ontologies/subjects/blood-proteins
661 sg:ontologies/subjects/carrier-proteins
662 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-cycle-proteins
663 sg:ontologies/subjects/cerebrospinal-fluid-proteins
664 sg:ontologies/subjects/chaperones
665 sg:ontologies/subjects/chromatin
666 sg:ontologies/subjects/circadian-rhythm-signalling-peptides-and-proteins
667 sg:ontologies/subjects/colipases
668 sg:ontologies/subjects/complement
669 sg:ontologies/subjects/contractile-proteins
670 sg:ontologies/subjects/cytoskeletal-proteins
671 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-binding-proteins
672 sg:ontologies/subjects/g-protein-coupled-receptors
673 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycoproteins
674 sg:ontologies/subjects/gtp-binding-protein-regulators
675 sg:ontologies/subjects/integrins
676 sg:ontologies/subjects/intracellular-signalling-peptides-and-proteins
677 sg:ontologies/subjects/lectins
678 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipoproteins
679 sg:ontologies/subjects/membrane-proteins
680 sg:ontologies/subjects/metalloproteins
681 sg:ontologies/subjects/methylases
682 sg:ontologies/subjects/mitochondrial-proteins
683 sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-receptors
684 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleases
685 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleoproteins
686 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleotide-binding-proteins
687 sg:ontologies/subjects/oncogene-proteins
688 sg:ontologies/subjects/phosphoproteins
689 sg:ontologies/subjects/phosphorylases
690 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteome
691 sg:ontologies/subjects/ribosomal-proteins
692 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-binding-proteins
693 sg:ontologies/subjects/scleroproteins
694 sg:ontologies/subjects/selenium-binding-proteins
695 sg:ontologies/subjects/sumoylated-proteins
696 sg:ontologies/subjects/thioredoxins
697 sg:ontologies/subjects/transcription-factors
698 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-suppressor-proteins
699 sg:ontologies/subjects/ubiquitins
700 sg:ontologies/subjects/ubiquitylated-proteins
701 sg:ontologies/subjects/viral-proteins
702 skos:prefLabel Proteins
703 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteomics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
704 rdf:type npg:Subject
705 skos:Concept
706 rdfs:label Proteomics
707 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
708 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
709 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
710 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
711 skos:definition Proteomics refers to the study of proteomes, but is also used to describe the techniques used to determine the entire set of proteins of an organism or system, such as protein purification and mass spectrometry.
712 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
713 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-protein-interaction-networks
714 skos:prefLabel Proteomics
715 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
716 rdf:type npg:Subject
717 skos:Concept
718 rdfs:label RNA
719 skos:altLabel Non Polyadenylated RNA
720 Non-Polyadenylated RNA
721 RNA Gene Products
722 Ribonucleic Acid
723 Ribonucleic acids
724 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
725 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
726 skos:definition RNA (ribonucleic acid) is a nucleic acid polymer where the carbohydrate is ribose. RNA is generally single-stranded, as DNA is transcribed by RNA polymerases into mRNA (messenger RNA), which is read by ribosomes to generate protein (translation). Biologically active RNAs, including transport, ribosomal and small nuclear RNA (tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs) fold into unique structures guided by complementary pairing between nucleotide bases.
727 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
728 skos:prefLabel RNA
729 sg:ontologies/subjects/screening sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
730 rdf:type npg:Subject
731 skos:Concept
732 rdfs:label Screening
733 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
734 sg:ontologies/subjects/medicinal-chemistry
735 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
736 skos:prefLabel Screening
737 sg:ontologies/subjects/small-molecules sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
738 rdf:type npg:Subject
739 skos:Concept
740 rdfs:label Small molecules
741 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
742 skos:definition Small molecules are low molecular weight molecules that include lipids, monosaccharides, second messengers, other natural products and metabolites, as well as drugs and other xenobiotics. They are distinct from macromolecules such as proteins. In chemical biology, this term also covers metal ions and in this discipline small molecules may play the role of a chemical tool.
743 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
744 skos:prefLabel Small molecules
745 sg:ontologies/subjects/synthetic-biology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
746 rdf:type npg:Subject
747 skos:Concept
748 rdfs:label Synthetic biology
749 skos:altLabel Synthetic Biologies
750 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
751 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering
752 sg:ontologies/subjects/systems-biology
753 skos:definition Synthetic biology is the design and construction of new biological parts, devices, and systems, and the re-design of existing, natural biological systems for useful purposes.
754 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
755 skos:prefLabel Synthetic biology
756 sg:ontologies/subjects/target-identification sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
757 rdf:type npg:Subject
758 skos:Concept
759 rdfs:label Target identification
760 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
761 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-discovery
762 sg:ontologies/subjects/medicinal-chemistry
763 skos:definition Target identification is the process of identifying the direct molecular target – for example protein or nucleic acid – of a small molecule. In clinical pharmacology, target identification is aimed at finding the efficacy target of a drug/pharmaceutical or other xenobiotic. The techniques used may be based on principles of biochemistry, biophysics, genetics, chemical biology or other disciplines.
764 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
765 skos:prefLabel Target identification
766 sg:ontologies/subjects/target-validation sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
767 rdf:type npg:Subject
768 skos:Concept
769 rdfs:label Target validation
770 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
771 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-discovery
772 sg:ontologies/subjects/medicinal-chemistry
773 skos:definition Target validation is the process by which the predicted molecular target – for example protein or nucleic acid – of a small molecule is verified. Target validation can include: determining the structure-activity-relationship of analogs of the small molecule; generating a drug-resistant mutant of the presumed target; knockdown or overexpression of the presumed target; and monitoring the known signalling systems downstream of the presumed target.
774 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
775 skos:prefLabel Target validation
776 sg:ontologies/subjects/transporters sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
777 rdf:type npg:Subject
778 skos:Concept
779 rdfs:label Transporters
780 skos:altLabel Membrane Transport Protein
781 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
782 skos:definition Transporters are integral-membrane proteins that form a pore within the plasma membrane to allow passage of various types of molecules, including ions, small molecules and proteins. Transporters can act by either facilitated diffusion or active transport.
783 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
784 skos:prefLabel Transporters
785 skos:Concept sgo:sdDataset for_codes
786 rdf:type rdfs:Class
787 rdfs:Resource
788 rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:Resource
789 skos:Concept
 




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