Cell biology


Ontology type: npg:Subject  | skos:Concept     


Concept Info

NAME

Cell biology

DESCRIPTION

Cell biology is the discipline of biological sciences that studies the structure, physiology, growth, reproduction and death of cells. Research in cell biology uses microscopic and molecular tools and examines all cell types, from unicellular organisms such as protozoa to the specialised cells that consitutute multicellular organisms.

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Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cell-biology'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cell-biology'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cell-biology'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cell-biology'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

507 TRIPLES      10 PREDICATES      37 URIs      8 LITERALS

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
2 sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
3 rdf:type npg:Subject
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8 Cellular Biology
9 Cytology
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12 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
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16 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-division
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38 dcterms:title Nature Subjects Taxonomy
39 sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
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172 skos:definition Cell growth usually refers to cell proliferation, the increase in cell numbers that occurs through repeated cell division. Cell growth can also refer to the enlargement of cell volume, which can take place in the absence of cell division.
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186 skos:definition Cell migration is the process by which cells move from one location to another by adopting different motility modes, such as mesenchymal, amoeboid or collective migration. Cell motility is observed in unicellular organisms, is essential for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, and is also involved in immune responses and pathological conditions.
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189 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-invasion
190 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemotaxis
191 sg:ontologies/subjects/collective-cell-migration
192 sg:ontologies/subjects/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
193 sg:ontologies/subjects/extracellular-matrix
194 sg:ontologies/subjects/filopodia
195 sg:ontologies/subjects/focal-adhesion
196 sg:ontologies/subjects/integrin-signalling
197 sg:ontologies/subjects/invadopodia
198 sg:ontologies/subjects/lamella
199 sg:ontologies/subjects/lamellipodia
200 sg:ontologies/subjects/mesenchymal-migration
201 sg:ontologies/subjects/podosomes
202 sg:ontologies/subjects/rho-signalling
203 skos:prefLabel Cell migration
204 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-polarity sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
205 rdf:type npg:Subject
206 skos:Concept
207 rdfs:label Cell polarity
208 skos:altLabel Cell Polarities
209 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
210 skos:definition Cell polarity is the asymmetric organisation of several cellular components, including its plasma membrane, cytoskeleton or organelles. This asymmetry can be used for specialised functions, such as maintaining a barrier within an epithelium or transmitting signals in neurons.
211 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
212 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/apicobasal-polarity
213 sg:ontologies/subjects/basolateral-polarity
214 skos:prefLabel Cell polarity
215 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-signalling sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
216 rdf:type npg:Subject
217 skos:Concept
218 rdfs:label Cell signalling
219 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
220 skos:definition Cell signalling is the mechanism by which stimuli are transmitted via a signalling cascade to effector molecules that orchestrate the appropriate response. Types of cell signalling pathways include checkpoint signalling, lipid signalling, growth signalling, nutrient signalling, insulin signalling, stress signalling, morphogen signalling, Hippo signalling, TOR signalling and integrin signalling.
221 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
222 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/calcium-signalling
223 sg:ontologies/subjects/checkpoint-signalling
224 sg:ontologies/subjects/extracellular-signalling-molecules
225 sg:ontologies/subjects/growth-signalling
226 sg:ontologies/subjects/hormone-receptors
227 sg:ontologies/subjects/insulin-signalling
228 sg:ontologies/subjects/ion-channel-signalling
229 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipid-signalling
230 sg:ontologies/subjects/morphogen-signalling
231 sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-receptors
232 sg:ontologies/subjects/nutrient-signalling
233 sg:ontologies/subjects/phosphoinositol-signalling
234 sg:ontologies/subjects/rho-signalling
235 sg:ontologies/subjects/stress-signalling
236 skos:prefLabel Cell signalling
237 sg:ontologies/subjects/cellular-imaging sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
238 rdf:type npg:Subject
239 skos:Concept
240 rdfs:label Cellular imaging
241 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
242 skos:definition Cellular imaging encompasses the techniques that allow the detection and analysis of cellular organelles and macromolecules. Cellular imaging observations are obtained using light-based or electron-based microscopes and often request further analysis with computer based programming.
243 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
244 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/super-resolution-microscopy
245 skos:prefLabel Cellular imaging
246 sg:ontologies/subjects/chromosomes sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
247 rdf:type npg:Subject
248 skos:Concept
249 rdfs:label Chromosomes
250 skos:altLabel Chromosome
251 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
252 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
253 skos:definition Chromosomes are cellular structures that contain the genetic material. A chromosome is comprised of a single DNA molecule that may be either circular or linear. The full complement of a cell’s chromosomes is called the genome.
254 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
255 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/centromeres
256 sg:ontologies/subjects/kinetochores
257 sg:ontologies/subjects/telomeres
258 skos:prefLabel Chromosomes
259 sg:ontologies/subjects/circadian-rhythms sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
260 rdf:type npg:Subject
261 skos:Concept
262 rdfs:label Circadian rhythms
263 skos:altLabel Diurnal Rhythm
264 Diurnal Rhythms
265 Nyctohemeral Rhythm
266 Nyctohemeral Rhythms
267 Twenty Four Hour Rhythm
268 Twenty-Four Hour Rhythm
269 Twenty-Four Hour Rhythms
270 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
271 skos:definition Circadian rhythms are 24-hour cycles determining periodicity in various physiological processes, including nervous system activity and hormone production, which influences sleeping and feeding patterns. These rhythms are regulated by endogenous networks of gene activity and can be modulated by changes in the environment, such as sunlight and temperature.
272 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
273 skos:prefLabel Circadian rhythms
274 sg:ontologies/subjects/cytoskeleton sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
275 rdf:type npg:Subject
276 skos:Concept
277 rdfs:label Cytoskeleton
278 skos:altLabel Cytoplasmic Filament
279 Cytoplasmic Filaments
280 Cytoskeletal Filament
281 Cytoskeletal Filaments
282 Cytoskeletons
283 Microtrabecular Lattice
284 Microtrabecular Lattices
285 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
286 skos:definition The cytoskeleton is a network of filamentous and tubular protein structures that support cell shape, intracellular compartmentalisation and trafficking, cell migration and cell division. The key constituents of the cytoskeleton are actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments.
287 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
288 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/actin
289 sg:ontologies/subjects/centrosome
290 sg:ontologies/subjects/cilia
291 sg:ontologies/subjects/dynein
292 sg:ontologies/subjects/intermediate-filaments
293 sg:ontologies/subjects/kinesin
294 sg:ontologies/subjects/microtubules
295 sg:ontologies/subjects/motor-proteins
296 sg:ontologies/subjects/myosin
297 sg:ontologies/subjects/stress-fibres
298 skos:prefLabel Cytoskeleton
299 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycobiology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
300 rdf:type npg:Subject
301 skos:Concept
302 rdfs:label Glycobiology
303 skos:altLabel Glycomic
304 Glycomics
305 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
306 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
307 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
308 skos:definition Glycobiology is the study of the structure, biosynthesis and biological functions of carbohydrates.
309 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
310 skos:prefLabel Glycobiology
311 sg:ontologies/subjects/mechanisms-of-disease sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
312 rdf:type npg:Subject
313 skos:Concept
314 rdfs:label Mechanisms of disease
315 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
316 skos:definition The defects in molecular and cellular processes that constitute the triggers of specific pathologies are referred to as mechanisms of disease. Research in this area is vital for designing appropriate and effective treatments.
317 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
318 skos:prefLabel Mechanisms of disease
319 sg:ontologies/subjects/membrane-trafficking sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
320 rdf:type npg:Subject
321 skos:Concept
322 rdfs:label Membrane trafficking
323 skos:altLabel Membrane traffic
324 Membrane transport
325 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
326 skos:definition Membrane trafficking is the process by which proteins and other macromolecules are distributed throughout the cell, and released to or internalised from the extracellular space. Membrane trafficking uses membrane-bound vesicles as transport intermediaries. Cargo molecules are enclosed within or associate with the membrane of these vesicles.
327 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
328 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/caveolae
329 sg:ontologies/subjects/coat-complexes
330 sg:ontologies/subjects/endocytosis
331 sg:ontologies/subjects/endoplasmic-reticulum
332 sg:ontologies/subjects/endosomes
333 sg:ontologies/subjects/escrt
334 sg:ontologies/subjects/exocytosis
335 sg:ontologies/subjects/golgi
336 sg:ontologies/subjects/lysosomes
337 sg:ontologies/subjects/membrane-curvature
338 sg:ontologies/subjects/membrane-fission
339 sg:ontologies/subjects/membrane-fusion
340 sg:ontologies/subjects/multivesicular-bodies
341 sg:ontologies/subjects/phagocytosis
342 sg:ontologies/subjects/retromer
343 sg:ontologies/subjects/secretion
344 sg:ontologies/subjects/small-gtpases
345 sg:ontologies/subjects/snare
346 sg:ontologies/subjects/transport-carrier
347 sg:ontologies/subjects/vacuole
348 skos:prefLabel Membrane trafficking
349 sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-organization sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
350 rdf:type npg:Subject
351 skos:Concept
352 rdfs:label Nuclear organization
353 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
354 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
355 skos:definition Nuclear organization refers to the spatial distribution of nuclear contents and components in a way that reflects or facilitates their activities. For example, chromatin or nucleoli may become more condensed or expanded in response to changes in gene expression or cellular growth rate.
356 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
357 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/cajal-bodies
358 sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-envelope
359 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleolus
360 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleoskeleton
361 sg:ontologies/subjects/pml-bodies
362 sg:ontologies/subjects/speckles
363 sg:ontologies/subjects/stress-granules
364 skos:prefLabel Nuclear organization
365 sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-transport sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
366 rdf:type npg:Subject
367 skos:Concept
368 rdfs:label Nuclear transport
369 skos:altLabel Nuclear Export
370 Nuclear Import
371 Nucleo cytoplasmic Transport
372 Nucleo-cytoplasmic Transport
373 Nucleocytoplasmic Transport
374 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
375 skos:definition While nuclear transport of small molecules happens by diffusion, that of macromolecules carrying specific recognition signals happens through nuclear pore complexes. Nuclear transport is regulated by the availability of these signals to the transport machinery, changes in the levels or modifications of the molecules to be transported.
376 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
377 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-pore-complex
378 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-transport
379 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-transport
380 sg:ontologies/subjects/transport-receptors
381 skos:prefLabel Nuclear transport
382 sg:ontologies/subjects/organelles sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
383 rdf:type npg:Subject
384 skos:Concept
385 rdfs:label Organelles
386 skos:altLabel Organelle
387 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
388 skos:definition Organelles are entities within a eukaryotic cell that have a specialised function. Examples of organelles include the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi, mitochondria, vacuoles or lysosomes, and chloroplasts (in plants).
389 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
390 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/autophagosomes
391 sg:ontologies/subjects/chloroplasts
392 sg:ontologies/subjects/endoplasmic-reticulum
393 sg:ontologies/subjects/endosomes
394 sg:ontologies/subjects/golgi
395 sg:ontologies/subjects/lysosomes
396 sg:ontologies/subjects/mitochondria
397 sg:ontologies/subjects/multivesicular-bodies
398 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleus
399 sg:ontologies/subjects/peroxisomes
400 skos:prefLabel Organelles
401 sg:ontologies/subjects/post-translational-modifications sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
402 rdf:type npg:Subject
403 skos:Concept
404 rdfs:label Post-translational modifications
405 skos:altLabel Post Translational Amino Acid Modification
406 Post Translational Modifications
407 Post Translational Protein Modification
408 Post Translational Protein Processing
409 Post-Translational Amino Acid Modification
410 Post-Translational Modification
411 Post-Translational Protein Modification
412 Post-Translational Protein Modifications
413 Post-Translational Protein Processing
414 Posttranslational Amino Acid Modification
415 Posttranslational Modification
416 Posttranslational Modifications
417 Posttranslational Protein Processing
418 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
419 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
420 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
421 skos:definition Post-translational modifications are modifications that occur on a protein, catalysed by enzymes, after its translation by ribosomes is complete. Post-translational modification generally refers to the addition of a functional group covalently to a protein as in phosphorylation and neddylation, but also refers to proteolytic processing and folding processes necessary for a protein to mature functionally.
422 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
423 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/acetylation
424 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycosylation
425 sg:ontologies/subjects/methylation
426 sg:ontologies/subjects/neddylation
427 sg:ontologies/subjects/nitrosylation
428 sg:ontologies/subjects/phosphorylation
429 sg:ontologies/subjects/polyadp-ribosylation
430 sg:ontologies/subjects/prenylation
431 sg:ontologies/subjects/sumoylation
432 sg:ontologies/subjects/ubiquitylation
433 skos:prefLabel Post-translational modifications
434 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-folding sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
435 rdf:type npg:Subject
436 skos:Concept
437 rdfs:label Protein folding
438 skos:altLabel Globular Protein Folding
439 Globular Protein Foldings
440 Protein Foldings
441 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
442 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
443 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
444 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-biology-and-bioinformatics
445 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
446 skos:definition Protein folding is the process by which proteins achieve their mature functional (native) tertiary structure, and often begins co-translationally. Protein folding requires chaperones and often involves stepwise establishment of regular secondary and supersecondary structures, namely α-helices and β-sheets, that fold rapidly, stabilized by hydrogen bonding and disulphide bridges, and then tertiary structure.
447 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
448 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/chaperones
449 sg:ontologies/subjects/endoplasmic-reticulum
450 sg:ontologies/subjects/prions
451 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-aggregation
452 skos:prefLabel Protein folding
453 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-transport sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
454 rdf:type npg:Subject
455 skos:Concept
456 rdfs:label Protein transport
457 skos:altLabel Gated Protein Transport
458 Protein Sorting
459 Protein Sortings
460 Protein Targeting
461 Protein Translocation
462 Protein Transports
463 Trafficking
464 Transmembrane Protein Transport
465 Transmembrane Protein Transports
466 Vesicular Protein Transport
467 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
468 sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-transport
469 skos:definition Protein transport involves the movement of a protein from one cellular or extracellular compartment to another. Protein transport can be facilitated by a variety of pathways including membrane trafficking, protein translocation, and endocytosis or exocytosis.
470 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
471 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-translocation
472 skos:prefLabel Protein transport
473 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteolysis sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
474 rdf:type npg:Subject
475 skos:Concept
476 rdfs:label Proteolysis
477 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
478 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
479 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
480 skos:definition Proteolysis is the enzymatic process by which proteins are degraded into their component polypeptide or amino acid parts. This generally occurs through protease-mediated hydrolysis of peptide bonds, but can also occur through non-enzymatic methods such as by action of mineral acids and heat.
481 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
482 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/deubiquitylating-enzymes
483 sg:ontologies/subjects/er-associated-degradation
484 sg:ontologies/subjects/lysosomes
485 sg:ontologies/subjects/neddylation
486 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteasome
487 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-quality-control
488 sg:ontologies/subjects/sumoylation
489 sg:ontologies/subjects/ubiquitin-ligases
490 sg:ontologies/subjects/ubiquitylation
491 skos:prefLabel Proteolysis
492 sg:ontologies/subjects/senescence sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
493 rdf:type npg:Subject
494 skos:Concept
495 rdfs:label Senescence
496 skos:altLabel Aging
497 Biological Aging
498 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
499 sg:ontologies/subjects/developmental-biology
500 skos:definition Senescence is the process by which cells irreversibly stop dividing and enter a state of permanent growth arrest without undergoing cell death. Senescence can be induced by unrepaired DNA damage or other cellular stresses.
501 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
502 skos:prefLabel Senescence
503 skos:Concept sgo:sdDataset for_codes
504 rdf:type rdfs:Class
505 rdfs:Resource
506 rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:Resource
507 skos:Concept
 




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