Cancer


Ontology type: npg:Subject  | skos:Concept     


Concept Info

NAME

Cancer

DESCRIPTION

Cancer is a complex disease in which cells in a specific tissue are no longer fully responsive to the signals within the tissue that regulate cellular differentiation, survival, proliferation and death. As a result, these cells accumulate within the tissue, causing local damage and inflammation. There are over 200 different types of cancer.

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Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cancer'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cancer'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cancer'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cancer'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

745 TRIPLES      10 PREDICATES      67 URIs      18 LITERALS

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
2 sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
3 rdf:type npg:Subject
4 skos:Concept
5 rdfs:label Cancer
6 skos:altLabel Benign Neoplasm
7 Benign Neoplasms
8 Benign Tumor
9 Benign Tumors
10 Benign Tumour
11 Benign Tumours
12 Cancers
13 Neoplasia
14 Neoplasm
15 Neoplasms
16 Tumor
17 Tumors
18 Tumour
19 Tumours
20 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
21 sg:ontologies/subjects/diseases
22 sg:ontologies/subjects/oncology
23 skos:definition Cancer is a complex disease in which cells in a specific tissue are no longer fully responsive to the signals within the tissue that regulate cellular differentiation, survival, proliferation and death. As a result, these cells accumulate within the tissue, causing local damage and inflammation. There are over 200 different types of cancer.
24 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
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63 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-suppressor-proteins
64 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-virus-infections
65 sg:ontologies/subjects/urological-cancer
66 skos:prefLabel Cancer
67 sg:ontologies/subjects/ dcterms:description The Nature Subjects Taxonomy is a polyhierarchical categorization of scholarly subject areas which are used for the indexing of content by Springer Nature.
68 dcterms:title Nature Subjects Taxonomy
69 sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
70 rdf:type skos:ConceptScheme
71 skos:hasTopConcept sg:ontologies/subjects/DEPRECATED
72 sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
73 sg:ontologies/subjects/business-and-commerce
74 sg:ontologies/subjects/earth-and-environmental-sciences
75 sg:ontologies/subjects/health-sciences
76 sg:ontologies/subjects/humanities
77 sg:ontologies/subjects/physical-sciences
78 sg:ontologies/subjects/scientific-community-and-society
79 sg:ontologies/subjects/social-science
80 sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
81 rdf:type npg:Subject
82 skos:Concept
83 rdfs:label Biological sciences
84 skos:altLabel Biologic Science
85 Biologic Sciences
86 Biological Science
87 Biological Science Discipline
88 Biological Science Disciplines
89 Life Science
90 Life Sciences
91 skos:definition Biological sciences encompasses all the divisions of natural sciences examining various aspects of vital processes. The concept includes anatomy, physiology, cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics, and covers all organisms from microorganisms, animals to plants.
92 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
93 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
94 sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques
95 sg:ontologies/subjects/biophysics
96 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
97 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
98 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
99 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
100 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-biology-and-bioinformatics
101 sg:ontologies/subjects/developmental-biology
102 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-discovery
103 sg:ontologies/subjects/ecology
104 sg:ontologies/subjects/evolution
105 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetics
106 sg:ontologies/subjects/immunology
107 sg:ontologies/subjects/microbiology
108 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
109 sg:ontologies/subjects/neuroscience
110 sg:ontologies/subjects/physiology
111 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-sciences
112 sg:ontologies/subjects/psychology
113 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cells
114 sg:ontologies/subjects/structural-biology
115 sg:ontologies/subjects/systems-biology
116 sg:ontologies/subjects/zoology
117 skos:prefLabel Biological sciences
118 skos:topConceptOf sg:ontologies/subjects/
119 sg:ontologies/subjects/bone-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
120 rdf:type npg:Subject
121 skos:Concept
122 rdfs:label Bone cancer
123 skos:altLabel Bone Neoplasm
124 Bone Neoplasms
125 Cancer of Bone
126 Cancer of the Bone
127 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
128 skos:definition Bone cancer is characterized by uncontrolled growth of cells of the bone. Primary bone cancer (that arises directly in the bone), is relatively rare. Different types of bone tissue give rise to different types of primary bone cancer: osteosarcoma develops from cells that form the bone and Ewing sarcoma develops from immature nerve tissue within the bone.
129 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
130 skos:prefLabel Bone cancer
131 sg:ontologies/subjects/breast-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
132 rdf:type npg:Subject
133 skos:Concept
134 rdfs:label Breast cancer
135 skos:altLabel Breast Neoplasm
136 Breast Neoplasms
137 Breast Tumor
138 Breast Tumors
139 Cancer of Breast
140 Cancer of the Breast
141 Human Mammary Carcinoma
142 Human Mammary Carcinomas
143 Human Mammary Neoplasm
144 Human Mammary Neoplasms
145 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
146 skos:definition Breast cancer is caused by the development of malignant cells in the breast. The malignant cells originate in the lining of the milk glands or ducts of the breast (ductal epithelium). Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, but it can also appear in men.
147 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
148 skos:prefLabel Breast cancer
149 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-epidemiology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
150 rdf:type npg:Subject
151 skos:Concept
152 rdfs:label Cancer epidemiology
153 skos:altLabel Cancer causes
154 Cancer risk
155 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
156 skos:definition Cancer epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of the likelihood of cancer development. Cancer epidemiology can be used to identify events that increase or decrease cancer incidence in specific populations.
157 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
158 skos:prefLabel Cancer epidemiology
159 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-genetics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
160 rdf:type npg:Subject
161 skos:Concept
162 rdfs:label Cancer genetics
163 skos:altLabel Genetic oncology
164 Heritable tumor genetics
165 Oncogenetics
166 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
167 sg:ontologies/subjects/clinical-genetics
168 sg:ontologies/subjects/disease-genetics
169 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetics
170 skos:definition Cancer genetics is the study in humans and other animals of heritable gene variants that cause or confer altered risk of tumour or hematological malignancy. Individual cancer risk varies and is influenced by familial and sporadic oncogene or tumour suppressor gene mutations as well as rare and common constitutional variants present in the population.
171 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
172 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-epigenetics
173 skos:prefLabel Cancer genetics
174 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-genomics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
175 rdf:type npg:Subject
176 skos:Concept
177 rdfs:label Cancer genomics
178 skos:altLabel Oncogenomics
179 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
180 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetics
181 skos:definition Cancer genomics is the study of the totality of DNA sequence and gene expression differences between tumour cells and normal host cells. It aims to understand the genetic basis of tumour cell proliferation and the evolution of the cancer genome under mutation and selection by the body environment, the immune system and therapeutic interventions.
182 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
183 skos:prefLabel Cancer genomics
184 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-imaging sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
185 rdf:type npg:Subject
186 skos:Concept
187 rdfs:label Cancer imaging
188 skos:altLabel Tumor imaging
189 Tumour imaging
190 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
191 skos:definition Cancer imaging is an umbrella term that covers the many approaches used to research and diagnose cancer. Originally used to diagnose and stage the disease, cancer imaging is now also used to assist with surgery and radiotherapy, to look for early responses to cancer therapies and to identify patients who are not responding to treatment.
192 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
193 skos:prefLabel Cancer imaging
194 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-metabolism sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
195 rdf:type npg:Subject
196 skos:Concept
197 rdfs:label Cancer metabolism
198 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
199 skos:definition Cancer metabolism refers to the alterations in cellular metabolism pathways that are evident in cancer cells compared with most normal tissue cells. Metabolic alterations in cancer cells are numerous and include aerobic glycolysis, reduced oxidative phosphorylation and the increased generation of biosynthetic intermediates needed for cell growth and proliferation.
200 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
201 skos:prefLabel Cancer metabolism
202 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-microenvironment sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
203 rdf:type npg:Subject
204 skos:Concept
205 rdfs:label Cancer microenvironment
206 skos:altLabel Tumor Microenvironment
207 Tumor Microenvironments
208 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
209 skos:definition The cancer microenvironment, or tumour microenvironment, describes the non-cancerous cells present in the tumour. These include fibroblasts, immune cells and cells that comprise the blood vessels. It also includes the proteins produced by all of the cells present in the tumour that support the growth of the cancer cells.
210 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
211 skos:prefLabel Cancer microenvironment
212 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-models sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
213 rdf:type npg:Subject
214 skos:Concept
215 rdfs:label Cancer models
216 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-models
217 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
218 skos:definition Cancer models are naturally existing or artificially induced systems that share features with human cancers. Experimental systems for studying human cancer include cell lines and organisms such as fruit flies and genetically modified mice to investigate cancer biochemical or genetic pathways and pathology.
219 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
220 skos:prefLabel Cancer models
221 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-of-unknown-primary sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
222 rdf:type npg:Subject
223 skos:Concept
224 rdfs:label Cancer of unknown primary
225 skos:altLabel Occult Primary Neoplasm
226 Occult Primary Neoplasms
227 Unknown Primary Neoplasm
228 Unknown Primary Neoplasm Metastasis
229 Unknown Primary Neoplasms
230 Unknown Primary Tumor
231 Unknown Primary Tumors
232 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
233 skos:definition Cancer of unknown primary occurs when cancer cells are found in the body, but the place where the cells first started growing (the origin or primary site) cannot be determined. Also called cancer of unknown primary origin or CUP.
234 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
235 skos:prefLabel Cancer of unknown primary
236 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-prevention sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
237 rdf:type npg:Subject
238 skos:Concept
239 rdfs:label Cancer prevention
240 skos:altLabel Prevention & control
241 control
242 preventive measures
243 preventive therapy
244 prophylaxis
245 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
246 skos:definition Cancer prevention includes treatments, procedures and lifestyle changes that aim to reduce the risk that cancer will develop in an individual. Some cancer prevention strategies are well known and government-funded; for example, stopping smoking, eating a healthy diet and undergoing a specific screening procedure, such as mammography.
247 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
248 skos:prefLabel Cancer prevention
249 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-screening sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
250 rdf:type npg:Subject
251 skos:Concept
252 rdfs:label Cancer screening
253 skos:altLabel Early diagnosis
254 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
255 skos:definition Cancer screening describes any procedure that aims to detect precancerous changes, such that cancer can be treated before it becomes malignant. Mammography and cervical smear tests are routine cancer-screening procedures. Ideally, the benefits of any screening procedure should outweigh the risks.
256 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
257 skos:prefLabel Cancer screening
258 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-stem-cells sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
259 rdf:type npg:Subject
260 skos:Concept
261 rdfs:label Cancer stem cells
262 skos:altLabel Cancer Stem Cell
263 Neoplastic Colony Forming Units
264 Neoplastic Colony-Forming Unit
265 Neoplastic Colony-Forming Units
266 Neoplastic Stem Cell
267 Neoplastic Stem Cells
268 Tumor Stem Cell
269 Tumor Stem Cells
270 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
271 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cells
272 skos:definition Cancer stem cells are rare immortal cells within a tumour that can both self-renew by dividing and give rise to many cell types that constitute the tumour, and can therefore form tumours. Such cells have been found in various types of human tumours and might be attractive targets for cancer treatment.
273 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
274 skos:prefLabel Cancer stem cells
275 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-therapy sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
276 rdf:type npg:Subject
277 skos:Concept
278 rdfs:label Cancer therapy
279 skos:altLabel Cancer treatment
280 Treatment regimen
281 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
282 skos:definition Cancer therapy describes the treatment of cancer in a patient, often with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Targeted therapies are also available for some cancer types. A cancer patient might receive many different types of therapy, including those aimed at relieving the symptoms of cancer, such as pain.
283 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
284 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-immunotherapy
285 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-therapeutic-resistance
286 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemotherapy
287 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-development
288 sg:ontologies/subjects/radiotherapy
289 sg:ontologies/subjects/targeted-therapies
290 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-vaccines
291 skos:prefLabel Cancer therapy
292 sg:ontologies/subjects/cns-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
293 rdf:type npg:Subject
294 skos:Concept
295 rdfs:label CNS cancer
296 skos:altLabel Central Nervous System Neoplasms
297 Central Nervous System Tumors
298 Primary Central Nervous System Neoplasms
299 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
300 sg:ontologies/subjects/neurological-disorders
301 skos:definition CNS cancer is a type of cancer that forms in the central nervous system. It includes brain stem glioma, craniopharyngioma, medulloblastoma and meningioma.
302 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
303 skos:prefLabel CNS cancer
304 sg:ontologies/subjects/cysts sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
305 rdf:type npg:Subject
306 skos:Concept
307 rdfs:label Cysts
308 skos:altLabel Cyst
309 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
310 skos:definition A cyst is a closed cluster of cells forming a sac that is surrounded by a membrane. The cells in this membrane are different in appearance and behaviour from the surrounding cells in that location. Cysts contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material and they can be formed from normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic or neoplastic tissues.
311 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
312 skos:prefLabel Cysts
313 sg:ontologies/subjects/diseases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
314 rdf:type npg:Subject
315 skos:Concept
316 rdfs:label Diseases
317 skos:altLabel Disease
318 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/health-sciences
319 skos:definition Diseases are abnormal conditions that have a specific set of signs and symptoms. Diseases can have an external cause, such as an infection, or an internal cause, such as autoimmune diseases.
320 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
321 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
322 sg:ontologies/subjects/cardiovascular-diseases
323 sg:ontologies/subjects/dental-diseases
324 sg:ontologies/subjects/endocrine-system-and-metabolic-diseases
325 sg:ontologies/subjects/eye-diseases
326 sg:ontologies/subjects/gastrointestinal-diseases
327 sg:ontologies/subjects/haematological-diseases
328 sg:ontologies/subjects/immunological-disorders
329 sg:ontologies/subjects/infectious-diseases
330 sg:ontologies/subjects/kidney-diseases
331 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolic-disorders
332 sg:ontologies/subjects/neurological-disorders
333 sg:ontologies/subjects/nutrition-disorders
334 sg:ontologies/subjects/oral-diseases
335 sg:ontologies/subjects/psychiatric-disorders
336 sg:ontologies/subjects/reproductive-disorders
337 sg:ontologies/subjects/respiratory-tract-diseases
338 sg:ontologies/subjects/rheumatic-diseases
339 sg:ontologies/subjects/skin-diseases
340 sg:ontologies/subjects/trauma
341 sg:ontologies/subjects/urogenital-diseases
342 skos:prefLabel Diseases
343 sg:ontologies/subjects/embryonal-neoplasms sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
344 rdf:type npg:Subject
345 skos:Concept
346 rdfs:label Embryonal neoplasms
347 skos:altLabel Embryonal Cancer
348 Embryonal Cancers
349 Embryonal Neoplasm
350 Germ Cell Cancer
351 Germ Cell Cancers
352 Germ Cell Neoplasms
353 Germ Cell Tumor
354 Germ Cell Tumors
355 Germ Cell and Embryonal Neoplasms
356 Germ Cell and Embryonic Neoplasms
357 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
358 skos:definition Embryonal neoplasms are tumours formed from a mass of rapidly growing cells that begin in embryonic (fetal) tissue and express one or more embryo-exclusive genes. They account for 2–3 % of germ cell tumours. They can be benign or malignant. The disease type does not include neoplasms located in an embryo or foetus.
359 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
360 skos:prefLabel Embryonal neoplasms
361 sg:ontologies/subjects/endocrine-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
362 rdf:type npg:Subject
363 skos:Concept
364 rdfs:label Endocrine cancer
365 skos:altLabel Cancer of Endocrine Gland
366 Cancer of the Endocrine Gland
367 Carcinoma of Endocrine Gland
368 Endocrine Cancers
369 Endocrine Gland Cancer
370 Endocrine Gland Carcinoma
371 Endocrine Gland Neoplasm
372 Endocrine Gland Neoplasms
373 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
374 sg:ontologies/subjects/endocrine-system-and-metabolic-diseases
375 skos:definition Endocrine cancers are a mixed group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cellular proliferation of the hormone-producing glands of the endocrine system. These include the thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, parathyroid and pituitary glands.
376 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
377 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/adrenal-tumours
378 sg:ontologies/subjects/neuroendocrine-cancer
379 sg:ontologies/subjects/pituitary-tumours
380 sg:ontologies/subjects/thyroid-cancer
381 skos:prefLabel Endocrine cancer
382 sg:ontologies/subjects/eye-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
383 rdf:type npg:Subject
384 skos:Concept
385 rdfs:label Eye cancer
386 skos:altLabel Cancer of Eye
387 Cancer of the Eye
388 Eye Cancers
389 Eye Neoplasm
390 Eye Neoplasms
391 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
392 skos:definition Eye cancer is an uncommon tumour that can affect the outer parts of the eye (like the eyelid) or the inside of the eyeball (intraocular cancer). The most common intraocular cancers in adults are melanoma and lymphoma, whereas the most common in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in cells of the retina.
393 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
394 skos:prefLabel Eye cancer
395 sg:ontologies/subjects/gastrointestinal-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
396 rdf:type npg:Subject
397 skos:Concept
398 rdfs:label Gastrointestinal cancer
399 skos:altLabel Cancer of Gastrointestinal Tract
400 Cancer of the Gastrointestinal Tract
401 Gastrointestinal Cancers
402 Gastrointestinal Neoplasm
403 Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
404 Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer
405 Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers
406 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
407 sg:ontologies/subjects/gastrointestinal-diseases
408 skos:definition Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and other organs involved in digestion, including the oesophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The symptoms relate to the organ affected and can include obstruction, abnormal bleeding and other associated problems.
409 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
410 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/anal-cancer
411 sg:ontologies/subjects/biliary-tract-cancer
412 sg:ontologies/subjects/colorectal-cancer
413 sg:ontologies/subjects/gastric-cancer
414 sg:ontologies/subjects/liver-cancer
415 sg:ontologies/subjects/oesophageal-cancer
416 sg:ontologies/subjects/pancreatic-cancer
417 skos:prefLabel Gastrointestinal cancer
418 sg:ontologies/subjects/germ-cell-tumours sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
419 rdf:type npg:Subject
420 skos:Concept
421 rdfs:label Germ cell tumours
422 skos:altLabel Embryonal Cancer
423 Embryonal Cancers
424 Embryonal Neoplasm
425 Embryonal Neoplasms
426 Germ Cell Cancer
427 Germ Cell Cancers
428 Germ Cell Neoplasms
429 Germ Cell Tumor
430 Germ Cell Tumors
431 Germ Cell and Embryonic Neoplasms
432 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
433 sg:ontologies/subjects/urology
434 skos:definition Germ cell tumours form from reproductive cells and can be cancerous or noncancerous. When cancerous, they normally develop as cancer of the testicles in men or of the ovaries in women. Germ cell tumours can be given different names according to their characteristics; for example, yolk-sac tumours, germinomas, embryonal carcinomas, teratomas and immature teratomas.
435 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
436 skos:prefLabel Germ cell tumours
437 sg:ontologies/subjects/gynaecological-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
438 rdf:type npg:Subject
439 skos:Concept
440 rdfs:label Gynaecological cancer
441 skos:altLabel Female Genital Neoplasm
442 Female Genital Neoplasms
443 Gynecologic Neoplasm
444 Gynecologic Neoplasms
445 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
446 skos:definition Gynaecological cancers are tumours located in the female reproductive system, and they include ovarian, uterine (or endometrial), cervical, vulval and vaginal cancer.
447 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
448 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/cervical-cancer
449 sg:ontologies/subjects/endometrial-cancer
450 sg:ontologies/subjects/ovarian-cancer
451 skos:prefLabel Gynaecological cancer
452 sg:ontologies/subjects/haematological-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
453 rdf:type npg:Subject
454 skos:Concept
455 rdfs:label Haematological cancer
456 skos:altLabel Hematologic Malignancies
457 Hematologic Malignancy
458 Hematologic Neoplasm
459 Hematological Malignancies
460 Hematological Malignancy
461 Hematological Neoplasm
462 Hematological Neoplasms
463 Hematopoietic Malignancies
464 Hematopoietic Malignancy
465 Hematopoietic Neoplasm
466 Hematopoietic Neoplasms
467 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
468 sg:ontologies/subjects/haematological-diseases
469 skos:definition Haematological malignancies are the types of cancer affecting blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. They are referred to as leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma depending on the type of cell affected. The three types of malignancies are connected through the immune system and, generally, a disease affecting one will also affect the others.
470 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
471 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/leukaemia
472 sg:ontologies/subjects/lymphoma
473 sg:ontologies/subjects/myelodysplastic-syndrome
474 sg:ontologies/subjects/myeloma
475 sg:ontologies/subjects/myeloproliferative-disease
476 skos:prefLabel Haematological cancer
477 sg:ontologies/subjects/hamartoma sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
478 rdf:type npg:Subject
479 skos:Concept
480 rdfs:label Hamartoma
481 skos:altLabel Hamartomas
482 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
483 skos:definition A hamartoma is a benign, focal malformation that resembles a neoplasm in the tissue of its origin. It is composed of tissue elements normally found at that site, that grow in a disorganized mass. They occur in many different parts of the body.
484 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
485 skos:prefLabel Hamartoma
486 sg:ontologies/subjects/head-and-neck-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
487 rdf:type npg:Subject
488 skos:Concept
489 rdfs:label Head and neck cancer
490 skos:altLabel Cancer of Head
491 Cancer of Head and Neck
492 Cancer of Neck
493 Cancer of the Head
494 Cancer of the Head and Neck
495 Cancer of the Neck
496 Head Cancer
497 Head Neoplasms
498 Head and Neck Neoplasms
499 Neck Cancer
500 Neck Neoplasms
501 UADT Neoplasm
502 UADT Neoplasms
503 Upper Aerodigestive Tract Neoplasms
504 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
505 skos:definition Head and neck cancer comprises a group of biologically similar cancers that start in the lip, oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity (inside the nose), paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Most head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that originate from the epithelium of these regions.
506 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
507 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/oral-cancer
508 skos:prefLabel Head and neck cancer
509 sg:ontologies/subjects/lung-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
510 rdf:type npg:Subject
511 skos:Concept
512 rdfs:label Lung cancer
513 skos:altLabel Cancer of Lung
514 Cancer of the Lung
515 Lung Cancers
516 Lung Neoplasm
517 Lung Neoplasms
518 Pulmonary Cancer
519 Pulmonary Cancers
520 Pulmonary Neoplasm
521 Pulmonary Neoplasms
522 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
523 skos:definition Lung cancer arises in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages. The two main types are small-cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer, according to the shape of cells under a microscope. The most common symptoms are coughing, shortness of breath and chest pains.
524 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
525 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/non-small-cell-lung-cancer
526 sg:ontologies/subjects/small-cell-lung-cancer
527 skos:prefLabel Lung cancer
528 sg:ontologies/subjects/mesothelioma sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
529 rdf:type npg:Subject
530 skos:Concept
531 rdfs:label Mesothelioma
532 skos:altLabel Mesotheliomas
533 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
534 skos:definition Mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive cancer deriving by uncontrolled growth of mesothelial cells and is most commonly caused by exposure to asbestos. The most common site for mesothelioma is the pleura (outer lining of the lungs), but it can also arise in the abdominal (peritoneum) or cardiac cavity (pericardium).
535 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
536 skos:prefLabel Mesothelioma
537 sg:ontologies/subjects/metastases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
538 rdf:type npg:Subject
539 skos:Concept
540 rdfs:label Metastasis
541 skos:altLabel Metastases
542 Neoplasm Metastases
543 Neoplasm Metastasis
544 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
545 skos:definition Metastasis is the spread of cancer to a part of the body distant from the original primary cancer. This occurs through the transfer of malignant or cancerous cells via lymph or blood. The new occurrences of cancer are called metastases.
546 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
547 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/bone-metastases
548 skos:prefLabel Metastasis
549 sg:ontologies/subjects/oncogenes sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
550 rdf:type npg:Subject
551 skos:Concept
552 rdfs:label Oncogenes
553 skos:altLabel Oncogene
554 Transforming Gene
555 Transforming Genes
556 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
557 skos:definition An oncogene is a gene that will transform a cell in culture. Oncogenes were initially identified in cancer-causing retroviruses. Genes involved in the regulation of cell division, movement and signalling for example can function as oncogenes under specific conditions.
558 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
559 skos:prefLabel Oncogenes
560 sg:ontologies/subjects/oncology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
561 rdf:type npg:Subject
562 skos:Concept
563 rdfs:label Oncology
564 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/health-sciences
565 skos:definition Oncology is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. It includes medical oncology (the use of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and other drugs to treat cancer), radiation oncology (the use of radiation therapy to treat cancer), and surgical oncology (the use of surgery and other procedures to treat cancer).
566 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
567 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
568 sg:ontologies/subjects/surgical-oncology
569 skos:prefLabel Oncology
570 sg:ontologies/subjects/oral-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
571 rdf:type npg:Subject
572 skos:Concept
573 rdfs:label Oral cancer
574 skos:altLabel Cancer of Mouth
575 Cancer of the Mouth
576 Mouth Cancer
577 Mouth Cancers
578 Mouth Neoplasm
579 Mouth Neoplasms
580 Oral Cancers
581 Oral Neoplasm
582 Oral Neoplasms
583 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
584 sg:ontologies/subjects/head-and-neck-cancer
585 sg:ontologies/subjects/oral-diseases
586 skos:definition Oral cancer is a cancerous growth in the mouth, on the tongue, lips or gums. The most common type of oral cancer is squamous cell carcinoma.
587 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
588 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/oral-cancer-detection
589 skos:prefLabel Oral cancer
590 sg:ontologies/subjects/paediatric-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
591 rdf:type npg:Subject
592 skos:Concept
593 rdfs:label Paediatric cancer
594 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
595 skos:definition Paediatric cancers are malignancies that occur in young children.The most common childhood cancers are leukaemia and brain tumors, such as gliomas.
596 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
597 skos:prefLabel Paediatric cancer
598 sg:ontologies/subjects/sarcoma sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
599 rdf:type npg:Subject
600 skos:Concept
601 rdfs:label Sarcoma
602 skos:altLabel Epithelioid Sarcoma
603 Epithelioid Sarcomas
604 Sarcomas
605 Soft Tissue Sarcoma
606 Soft Tissue Sarcomas
607 Spindle Cell Sarcoma
608 Spindle Cell Sarcomas
609 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
610 skos:definition A sarcoma is a cancer that arises from uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of mesodermal origins, such as connective tissue, bone, cartilage, fat or muscle. There are around 100 different subtypes of sarcoma that can be classified into three broad groups: soft tissue sarcoma; primary bone sarcoma; and gastro-intestinal stromal tumours.
611 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
612 skos:prefLabel Sarcoma
613 sg:ontologies/subjects/skin-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
614 rdf:type npg:Subject
615 skos:Concept
616 rdfs:label Skin cancer
617 skos:altLabel Cancer of Skin
618 Cancer of the Skin
619 Skin Cancers
620 Skin Neoplasm
621 Skin Neoplasms
622 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
623 sg:ontologies/subjects/skin-diseases
624 skos:definition Skin cancer can involve melanocytes, leading to melanoma, but there are other non-melanoma skin cancers. These include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and, less commonly, Merkel cell carcinoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma and T-cell lymphoma of the skin.
625 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
626 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/basal-cell-carcinoma
627 sg:ontologies/subjects/melanoma
628 sg:ontologies/subjects/squamous-cell-carcinoma
629 skos:prefLabel Skin cancer
630 sg:ontologies/subjects/testicular-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
631 rdf:type npg:Subject
632 skos:Concept
633 rdfs:label Testicular cancer
634 skos:altLabel Cancer of Testis
635 Cancer of the Testes
636 Cancer of the Testis
637 Rete Testis Tumor
638 Rete Testis Tumors
639 Testicular Cancers
640 Testicular Neoplasm
641 Testicular Neoplasms
642 Testis Cancer
643 Testis Cancers
644 Testis Neoplasm
645 Testis Neoplasms
646 Tumor of Rete Testis
647 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
648 sg:ontologies/subjects/urogenital-diseases
649 sg:ontologies/subjects/urological-cancer
650 skos:definition Testicular cancer is a cancer that starts in the testis. The majority (95%) of testicular cancers are germ cell tumours. Treatment for testicular cancer is highly effective, with 5-year overall survival rates approaching 100% for localized disease.
651 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
652 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/leydig-cell-tumour
653 sg:ontologies/subjects/sertoli-cell-tumour
654 skos:prefLabel Testicular cancer
655 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-angiogenesis sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
656 rdf:type npg:Subject
657 skos:Concept
658 rdfs:label Tumour angiogenesis
659 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
660 skos:definition Tumour angiogenesis describes the formation of new blood vessels in a tumour. This process makes use of the existing surrounding blood vessels and occurs as a result of signals sent by tumour cells and cells in the tumour microenvironment.
661 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
662 skos:prefLabel Tumour angiogenesis
663 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-biomarkers sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
664 rdf:type npg:Subject
665 skos:Concept
666 rdfs:label Tumour biomarkers
667 skos:altLabel Biochemical Tumor Marker
668 Biochemical Tumor Markers
669 Biologic Tumor Marker
670 Biologic Tumor Markers
671 Biological Tumor Marker
672 Carcinogen Markers
673 Neoplasm Metabolite Marker
674 Neoplasm Metabolite Markers
675 Tumor Markers
676 Tumor Metabolite Marker
677 Tumor Metabolite Markers
678 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
679 skos:definition Tumour biomarkers is a term used to describe many different potential markers of cancer development and progression. These markers can come in many forms – for example, proteins, biochemicals, DNA and RNA – and ideally they should be specific to a particular type of cancer and not present in normal tissues or in healthy individuals.
680 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
681 skos:prefLabel Tumour biomarkers
682 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-heterogeneity sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
683 rdf:type npg:Subject
684 skos:Concept
685 rdfs:label Tumour heterogeneity
686 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
687 skos:definition Tumour heterogeneity describes differences between tumours of the same type in different patients, and between cancer cells within a tumour. Both can lead to different responses to therapy. Genetic and epigenetic differences between cancer cells within a tumour might explain why some tumour cells remain present in the patient after cancer treatment has finished.
688 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
689 skos:prefLabel Tumour heterogeneity
690 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-immunology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
691 rdf:type npg:Subject
692 skos:Concept
693 rdfs:label Tumour immunology
694 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
695 sg:ontologies/subjects/immunology
696 skos:definition Tumour immunology describes the interaction between cells of the immune system with tumour cells. Understanding these interactions is important for the development of new therapies for cancer treatment.
697 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
698 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/immunosurveillance
699 skos:prefLabel Tumour immunology
700 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-suppressor-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
701 rdf:type npg:Subject
702 skos:Concept
703 rdfs:label Tumour-suppressor proteins
704 skos:altLabel Growth Suppressor Proteins
705 Metastasis Suppressor Proteins
706 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
707 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
708 skos:definition Tumour-suppressor proteins act to alleviate the potential for cancer and tumour formation by modulating cell growth either through negative regulation of the cell cycle or by promoting apoptosis. Mutation or dysregulation of tumour-suppressor proteins can lead to unregulated cell growth and tumour development.
709 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
710 skos:prefLabel Tumour-suppressor proteins
711 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-virus-infections sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
712 rdf:type npg:Subject
713 skos:Concept
714 rdfs:label Tumour virus infections
715 skos:altLabel DNA tumor virus
716 DNA tumour virus
717 Shope Fibroma
718 Shope Papilloma
719 Transforming retrovirus
720 Tumor Virus Infection
721 Tumor Virus Infections
722 Tumour Virus Infection
723 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
724 skos:definition Tumour virus infections are caused by oncogenic DNA or RNA viruses. They can cause cancer by two different processes: directly through the expression of viral proteins that disrupt tissue cells and result in their transformation; and indirectly through mutation of the host cell DNA through viral integration (also known as insertional mutagenesis).
725 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
726 skos:prefLabel Tumour virus infections
727 sg:ontologies/subjects/urological-cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
728 rdf:type npg:Subject
729 skos:Concept
730 rdfs:label Urological cancer
731 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
732 sg:ontologies/subjects/urogenital-diseases
733 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
734 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/bladder-cancer
735 sg:ontologies/subjects/penile-cancer
736 sg:ontologies/subjects/prostate-cancer
737 sg:ontologies/subjects/renal-cancer
738 sg:ontologies/subjects/testicular-cancer
739 sg:ontologies/subjects/urethral-neoplasms
740 skos:prefLabel Urological cancer
741 skos:Concept sgo:sdDataset for_codes
742 rdf:type rdfs:Class
743 rdfs:Resource
744 rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:Resource
745 skos:Concept
 




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