Biotechnology


Ontology type: npg:Subject  | skos:Concept     


Concept Info

NAME

Biotechnology

DESCRIPTION

Biotechnology is a broad discipline in which biological processes, organisms, cells or cellular components are exploited to develop new technologies. New tools and products developed by biotechnologists are useful in research, agriculture, industry and the clinic.

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology", 
    "rdfs:label": "Biotechnology", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:altLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biotechnologies"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biotechnology is a broad discipline in which biological processes, organisms, cells or cellular components are exploited to develop new technologies.  New tools and products developed by biotechnologists are useful in research, agriculture, industry and the clinic."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/animal-biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cell-delivery"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/nanobiotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/peptide-delivery"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/environmental-biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/industrial-microbiology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/protein-delivery"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/genomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/metabolomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/plant-biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/proteomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/tissue-engineering"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/functional-genomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/applied-immunology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/metabolic-engineering"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biologics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/expression-systems"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/regenerative-medicine"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/gene-delivery"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/stem-cell-biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biomaterials"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biomimetics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/assay-systems"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/oligo-delivery"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/gene-therapy"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/sequencing"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering", 
    "rdfs:label": "Molecular engineering", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/systems-biology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Molecular engineering includes methods for the design and synthesis of novel molecules with desirable physical properties or functionalities."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/antimicrobials"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/protein-design"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/virtual-drug-screening"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/synthetic-biology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/metabolic-engineering"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Molecular engineering"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/animal-biotechnology", 
    "rdfs:label": "Animal biotechnology", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Animal biotechnology is a branch of biotechnology in which molecular biology techniques are used to genetically engineer (i.e. modify the genome of) animals in order to improve their suitability for pharmaceutical, agricultural or industrial applications. Animal biotechnology has been used to produce genetically modified animals that synthesize therapeutic proteins, have improved growth rates or are resistant to disease."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/genetic-engineering"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cloning"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Animal biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cell-delivery", 
    "rdfs:label": "Cell delivery", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Cell delivery is a suite of methods that have two purposes, first to precisely deliver cellular therapeutics to a target site (tissue or organ) and second, to ensure that the delivered cell therapeutics work. Cell delivery is important because cellular therapeutics are fragile and preservation of their functionality is essential for efficacy.  "
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Cell delivery"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/nanobiotechnology", 
    "rdfs:label": "Nanobiotechnology", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:altLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "nanobiology"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Bionanotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/nanoscience-and-technology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Nanobiotechnology is a discipline in which tools from nanotechnology are developed and applied to study biological phenomena. For example, nanoparticles can serve as probes, sensors or vehicles for biomolecule delivery in cellular systems."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/bionanoelectronics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/applications-of-afm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/nanofabrication-and-nanopatterning"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/nanopores"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/soft-lithography"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/microengraving"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biosensors"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/microfluidics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/nanoparticles"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/nanostructures"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Nanobiotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/peptide-delivery", 
    "rdfs:label": "Peptide delivery", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Peptide delivery is a method by which peptides are delivered into cells. Peptides could be used as drugs, for example to treat bacterial infections. Nanoparticles \u2014 particles of 1-100nm in size \u2014 and specially designed polymers have been used to deliver peptides into cells."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Peptide delivery"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/environmental-biotechnology", 
    "rdfs:label": "Environmental biotechnology", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Environmental biotechnology is the branch of biotechnology that addresses environmental problems, such as the removal of pollution, renewable energy generation or biomass production, by exploiting biological processes."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Environmental biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/industrial-microbiology", 
    "rdfs:label": "Industrial microbiology", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:altLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Applied microbiology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/microbiology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Industrial microbiology is a branch of applied microbiology in which microorganisms are used in industrial processes; for example, in the production of high-value products such as drugs, chemicals, fuels and electricity."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biopolymers"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/bioremediation"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/environmental-microbiology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/metabolic-engineering"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/antimicrobials"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Industrial microbiology"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/protein-delivery", 
    "rdfs:label": "Protein delivery", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Protein delivery is the suite of methods by which proteins can be introduced into cells. Proteins can be exploited to produce potentially highly specific drugs. Protein delivery methods must maintain bioavailability and activity of proteins and should not be toxic."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Protein delivery"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/genomics", 
    "rdfs:label": "Genomics", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/genetics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Genomics is the study of the full genetic complement of an organism (the genome). It employs recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing methods, and bioinformatics to sequence, assemble, and analyse the structure and function of genomes."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/mobile-elements"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/genome-evolution"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/comparative-genomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/pharmacogenomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/metagenomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/transcriptomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/phylogenomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/epigenomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/nutrigenomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/medical-genomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/genome-assembly-algorithms"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/conservation-genomics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/personalized-medicine"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Genomics"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/metabolomics", 
    "rdfs:label": "Metabolomics", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:altLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Metabonomics"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Metabolomic"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Metabonomic"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/metabolism"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biochemistry"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Metabolomics refers to the systematic identification and quantification of the small molecule metabolic products (the metabolome) of a biological system (cell, tissue, organ, biological fluid, or organism) at a specific point in time. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy are the techniques most often used for metabolome profiling."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Metabolomics"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/plant-biotechnology", 
    "rdfs:label": "Plant biotechnology", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/plant-sciences"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Plant biotechnology can be defined as the introduction of desirable traits into plants through genetic modification."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/agricultural-genetics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/field-trials"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering-in-plants"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Plant biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/proteomics", 
    "rdfs:label": "Proteomics", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biochemistry"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Proteomics refers to the study of proteomes, but is also used to describe the techniques used to determine the entire set of proteins of an organism or system, such as protein purification and mass spectrometry. "
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/protein-protein-interaction-networks"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Proteomics"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/tissue-engineering", 
    "rdfs:label": "Tissue engineering", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Tissue engineering is a set of methods that can replace or repair damaged or diseased tissues with natural, synthetic, or semisynthetic tissue mimics. These mimics can either be fully functional or will grow into the required functionality."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Tissue engineering"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/functional-genomics", 
    "rdfs:label": "Functional genomics", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/genetics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Functional genomics uses genomic data to study gene and protein expression and function on a global scale (genome-wide or system-wide), focusing on gene transcription, translation and protein-protein interactions, and often involving high-throughput methods."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/rnai"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/gene-expression-profiling"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/mutagenesis"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/epistasis"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Functional genomics"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/applied-immunology", 
    "rdfs:label": "Applied immunology", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/immunology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Applied immunology provides services to support the development of biological therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines and diagnostics. Applied immunology is a subdiscipline of immunology."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/vaccines"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Applied immunology"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/metabolic-engineering", 
    "rdfs:label": "Metabolic engineering", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/industrial-microbiology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/systems-biology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Metabolic engineering is the use of genetic engineering to modify the metabolism of an organism. It can involve the optimization of existing biochemical pathways or the introduction of pathway components, most commonly in bacteria, yeast or plants, with the goal of high-yield production of specific metabolites for medicine or biotechnology."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Metabolic engineering"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biologics", 
    "rdfs:label": "Biologics", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:altLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biologic medicine"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biologic medicinal product"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biological"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biological Products"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biologic Products"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Natural Products"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biopharmaceutical"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/drug-discovery"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "A biologic is a therapeutic substance that is produced through a biological process (often involving biotechnology methods), rather than chemical synthesis (as for traditional pharmaceuticals). Types of biologic include antibody therapies, vaccines, gene therapies and cell therapies. "
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/antisense-oligonucleotide-therapy"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/triplex-oligo"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/gene-therapy"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/meganucleases"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/recombinant-protein-therapy"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/locked-nucleic-acid"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/rna-vaccines"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/recombinant-peptide-therapy"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/antibody-therapy"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/recombinant-vaccine"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/antibody-fragment-therapy"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/antagomir-and-rna-sponge"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/zinc-finger-nuclease"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cell-therapies"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/sirnas"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/dna-vaccines"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/tal-effector-nuclease"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/peptide-nucleic-acid-oligo"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biologics"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/expression-systems", 
    "rdfs:label": "Expression systems", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Expression systems are genetic constructs (a gene encoded by DNA) that are designed to produce a protein, or an RNA (ribonucleic acid), either inside or outside a cell. Expression systems are used in research and in the commercial production of enzymes or therapeutics."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Expression systems"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/regenerative-medicine", 
    "rdfs:label": "Regenerative medicine", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:altLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Regenerative Medicines"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Regenerative medicine is the branch of medicine that develops methods to regrow, repair or replace damaged or diseased cells, organs or tissues. Regenerative medicine includes the generation and use of therapeutic stem cells, tissue engineering and the production of artificial organs."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Regenerative medicine"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/gene-delivery", 
    "rdfs:label": "Gene delivery", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:altLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Transfection"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Gene delivery is a process by which foreign DNA is transferred to host cells for applications such as genetic research or gene therapy. Gene delivery methods can be mechanical (e.g. microinjection, electroporation or biolistics), chemical (e.g. lipid or nanoparticle carriers) or biological (e.g. viral or bacterial vectors)."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/transfection"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biolistics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/genetic-vectors"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/genetic-transduction"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Gene delivery"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/stem-cell-biotechnology", 
    "rdfs:label": "Stem-cell biotechnology", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Stem cell biotechnology is a field of biotechnology that develops tools and therapeutics through modification and engineering of stem cells. Stem cell biotechnology is important in regenerative medicine."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Stem-cell biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics", 
    "rdfs:label": "Nucleic-acid therapeutics", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biologics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Nucleic acid therapeutics are based on nucleic acids or closely related chemical compounds. They include antisense oligonucleotides, aptamers and small interfering RNAs, and are typically considered in cases where specific inhibition of the function of a particular gene involved in disease is thought to be therapeutically desirable. "
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/locked-nucleic-acid"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/antagomir-and-rna-sponge"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/peptide-nucleic-acid-oligo"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/triplex-oligo"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/rnai-therapy"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/antisense-oligonucleotide-therapy"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Nucleic-acid therapeutics"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biomaterials", 
    "rdfs:label": "Biomaterials", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:altLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Hemocompatible Materials"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biocompatible Materials"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/materials-science"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/materials-chemistry"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/optical-materials-and-structures"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biomaterials are those materials \u2014 be it natural or synthetic, alive or lifeless, and usually made of multiple components \u2014 that interact with biological systems. Biomaterials are often used in medical applications to augment or replace a natural function."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biomineralization"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/implants"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/dna-and-rna"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/bioinspired-materials"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biomaterials-proteins"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/tissues"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biomedical-materials"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biomaterials-cells"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biomaterials-vaccines"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/drug-delivery"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biomaterials"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biomimetics", 
    "rdfs:label": "Biomimetics", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:altLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biomimetic"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biological Mimetic"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biological Mimetics"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biomimetics is an interdisciplinary field in which principles from engineering, chemistry and biology are applied to the synthesis of materials, synthetic systems or machines that have functions that mimic biological processes. Biomaterials are any natural or synthetic material that interacts with any part of a biological system. Biomimetic designs could be used in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and drug delivery. "
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biomimetic-synthesis"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biomimetics"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/assay-systems", 
    "rdfs:label": "Assay systems", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Assay systems are methods that are used to measure the presence, amount or activity of a substance e.g. a drug, cell type or cell component. A wide range of experimental methods are used to measure different components of organic samples in assay systems. "
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Assay systems"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/oligo-delivery", 
    "rdfs:label": "Oligo delivery", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Oligonucleotide delivery is a method by which oligonucleotides are delivered into cells, or targeted to specific cell types, tissues or organs. This tool might be used, for example, to silence the expression of a gene. Both liposomes and nanoparticles \u2014 particles of 1-100nm in size \u2014 have been used for oligonucleotide delivery. "
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Oligo delivery"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/gene-therapy", 
    "rdfs:label": "Gene therapy", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:altLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "DNA Therapy"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Somatic Gene Therapy"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/therapeutics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/clinical-genetics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biologics"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Gene therapy involves the introduction of new genes into cells, to restore or add gene expression, for the purpose of treating disease. Most commonly a mutated gene is replaced with DNA encoding a functional copy. Alternatively DNA encoding a therapeutic protein drug may be introduced."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/targeted-gene-repair"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Gene therapy"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/sequencing", 
    "rdfs:label": "Sequencing", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:altLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Sequence Analyses"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Sequence Determination"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Sequence Analysis"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Sequence Determinations"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:broader": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/genetics"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Sequencing refers to the techniques used to determine the primary structure of an unbranched biopolymer (DNA, RNA, protein, carbohydrate) resulting in a symbolic linear depiction of the monomeric subunits which summarizes much of the atomic-level structure of the molecule."
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/protein-sequencing"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/sequence-annotation"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/targeted-resequencing"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/polysaccharide-sequencing"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/next-generation-sequencing"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/dna-sequencing"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/rna-sequencing"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Sequencing"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept", 
    "rdfs:subClassOf": [
      {
        "id": "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Resource"
      }
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "for_codes", 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Resource", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Class"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences", 
    "rdfs:label": "Biological sciences", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:altLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biologic Sciences"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biologic Science"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Life Sciences"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biological Science Discipline"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biological Science"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Life Science"
      }, 
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biological Science Disciplines"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:definition": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biological sciences encompasses all the divisions of natural sciences examining various aspects of vital processes. The concept includes anatomy, physiology, cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics, and covers all organisms from microorganisms, animals to plants. "
      }
    ], 
    "skos:inScheme": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:narrower": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cell-biology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/computational-biology-and-bioinformatics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/physiology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/zoology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/evolution"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biochemistry"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/developmental-biology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/plant-sciences"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/neuroscience"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cancer"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/drug-discovery"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/ecology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/microbiology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biophysics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/genetics"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/stem-cells"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/psychology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/immunology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/systems-biology"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/structural-biology"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:prefLabel": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Biological sciences"
      }
    ], 
    "skos:topConceptOf": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://ns.nature.com/terms/Subject", 
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"
    ]
  }, 
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "dcterms:description": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "The Nature Subjects Taxonomy is a polyhierarchical categorization of scholarly subject areas which are used for the indexing of content by Springer Nature."
      }
    ], 
    "dcterms:title": [
      {
        "@language": "en", 
        "@value": "Nature Subjects Taxonomy"
      }
    ], 
    "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/", 
    "sdDataset": "onto_subjects", 
    "skos:hasTopConcept": [
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/physical-sciences"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/DEPRECATED"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/business-and-commerce"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/humanities"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/social-science"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/health-sciences"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/scientific-community-and-society"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/earth-and-environmental-sciences"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences"
      }
    ], 
    "type": [
      "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#ConceptScheme"
    ]
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biotechnology'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

467 TRIPLES      10 PREDICATES      39 URIs      5 LITERALS

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
2 sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
3 rdf:type npg:Subject
4 skos:Concept
5 rdfs:label Biotechnology
6 skos:altLabel Biotechnologies
7 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
8 skos:definition Biotechnology is a broad discipline in which biological processes, organisms, cells or cellular components are exploited to develop new technologies. New tools and products developed by biotechnologists are useful in research, agriculture, industry and the clinic.
9 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
10 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/animal-biotechnology
11 sg:ontologies/subjects/applied-immunology
12 sg:ontologies/subjects/assay-systems
13 sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
14 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomaterials
15 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomimetics
16 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-delivery
17 sg:ontologies/subjects/environmental-biotechnology
18 sg:ontologies/subjects/expression-systems
19 sg:ontologies/subjects/functional-genomics
20 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-delivery
21 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-therapy
22 sg:ontologies/subjects/genomics
23 sg:ontologies/subjects/industrial-microbiology
24 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolic-engineering
25 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolomics
26 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering
27 sg:ontologies/subjects/nanobiotechnology
28 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics
29 sg:ontologies/subjects/oligo-delivery
30 sg:ontologies/subjects/peptide-delivery
31 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-biotechnology
32 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-delivery
33 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteomics
34 sg:ontologies/subjects/regenerative-medicine
35 sg:ontologies/subjects/sequencing
36 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cell-biotechnology
37 sg:ontologies/subjects/tissue-engineering
38 skos:prefLabel Biotechnology
39 sg:ontologies/subjects/ dcterms:description The Nature Subjects Taxonomy is a polyhierarchical categorization of scholarly subject areas which are used for the indexing of content by Springer Nature.
40 dcterms:title Nature Subjects Taxonomy
41 sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
42 rdf:type skos:ConceptScheme
43 skos:hasTopConcept sg:ontologies/subjects/DEPRECATED
44 sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
45 sg:ontologies/subjects/business-and-commerce
46 sg:ontologies/subjects/earth-and-environmental-sciences
47 sg:ontologies/subjects/health-sciences
48 sg:ontologies/subjects/humanities
49 sg:ontologies/subjects/physical-sciences
50 sg:ontologies/subjects/scientific-community-and-society
51 sg:ontologies/subjects/social-science
52 sg:ontologies/subjects/animal-biotechnology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
53 rdf:type npg:Subject
54 skos:Concept
55 rdfs:label Animal biotechnology
56 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
57 skos:definition Animal biotechnology is a branch of biotechnology in which molecular biology techniques are used to genetically engineer (i.e. modify the genome of) animals in order to improve their suitability for pharmaceutical, agricultural or industrial applications. Animal biotechnology has been used to produce genetically modified animals that synthesize therapeutic proteins, have improved growth rates or are resistant to disease.
58 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
59 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/cloning
60 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetic-engineering
61 skos:prefLabel Animal biotechnology
62 sg:ontologies/subjects/applied-immunology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
63 rdf:type npg:Subject
64 skos:Concept
65 rdfs:label Applied immunology
66 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
67 sg:ontologies/subjects/immunology
68 skos:definition Applied immunology provides services to support the development of biological therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines and diagnostics. Applied immunology is a subdiscipline of immunology.
69 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
70 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/vaccines
71 skos:prefLabel Applied immunology
72 sg:ontologies/subjects/assay-systems sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
73 rdf:type npg:Subject
74 skos:Concept
75 rdfs:label Assay systems
76 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
77 skos:definition Assay systems are methods that are used to measure the presence, amount or activity of a substance e.g. a drug, cell type or cell component. A wide range of experimental methods are used to measure different components of organic samples in assay systems.
78 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
79 skos:prefLabel Assay systems
80 sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
81 rdf:type npg:Subject
82 skos:Concept
83 rdfs:label Biological sciences
84 skos:altLabel Biologic Science
85 Biologic Sciences
86 Biological Science
87 Biological Science Discipline
88 Biological Science Disciplines
89 Life Science
90 Life Sciences
91 skos:definition Biological sciences encompasses all the divisions of natural sciences examining various aspects of vital processes. The concept includes anatomy, physiology, cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics, and covers all organisms from microorganisms, animals to plants.
92 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
93 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
94 sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques
95 sg:ontologies/subjects/biophysics
96 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
97 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
98 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology
99 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
100 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-biology-and-bioinformatics
101 sg:ontologies/subjects/developmental-biology
102 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-discovery
103 sg:ontologies/subjects/ecology
104 sg:ontologies/subjects/evolution
105 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetics
106 sg:ontologies/subjects/immunology
107 sg:ontologies/subjects/microbiology
108 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
109 sg:ontologies/subjects/neuroscience
110 sg:ontologies/subjects/physiology
111 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-sciences
112 sg:ontologies/subjects/psychology
113 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cells
114 sg:ontologies/subjects/structural-biology
115 sg:ontologies/subjects/systems-biology
116 sg:ontologies/subjects/zoology
117 skos:prefLabel Biological sciences
118 skos:topConceptOf sg:ontologies/subjects/
119 sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
120 rdf:type npg:Subject
121 skos:Concept
122 rdfs:label Biologics
123 skos:altLabel Biologic Products
124 Biologic medicinal product
125 Biologic medicine
126 Biological
127 Biological Products
128 Biopharmaceutical
129 Natural Products
130 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
131 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-discovery
132 skos:definition A biologic is a therapeutic substance that is produced through a biological process (often involving biotechnology methods), rather than chemical synthesis (as for traditional pharmaceuticals). Types of biologic include antibody therapies, vaccines, gene therapies and cell therapies.
133 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
134 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/antagomir-and-rna-sponge
135 sg:ontologies/subjects/antibody-fragment-therapy
136 sg:ontologies/subjects/antibody-therapy
137 sg:ontologies/subjects/antisense-oligonucleotide-therapy
138 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-therapies
139 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-vaccines
140 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-therapy
141 sg:ontologies/subjects/locked-nucleic-acid
142 sg:ontologies/subjects/meganucleases
143 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics
144 sg:ontologies/subjects/peptide-nucleic-acid-oligo
145 sg:ontologies/subjects/recombinant-peptide-therapy
146 sg:ontologies/subjects/recombinant-protein-therapy
147 sg:ontologies/subjects/recombinant-vaccine
148 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-vaccines
149 sg:ontologies/subjects/sirnas
150 sg:ontologies/subjects/tal-effector-nuclease
151 sg:ontologies/subjects/triplex-oligo
152 sg:ontologies/subjects/zinc-finger-nuclease
153 skos:prefLabel Biologics
154 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomaterials sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
155 rdf:type npg:Subject
156 skos:Concept
157 rdfs:label Biomaterials
158 skos:altLabel Biocompatible Materials
159 Hemocompatible Materials
160 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
161 sg:ontologies/subjects/materials-chemistry
162 sg:ontologies/subjects/materials-science
163 sg:ontologies/subjects/optical-materials-and-structures
164 skos:definition Biomaterials are those materials — be it natural or synthetic, alive or lifeless, and usually made of multiple components — that interact with biological systems. Biomaterials are often used in medical applications to augment or replace a natural function.
165 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
166 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/bioinspired-materials
167 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomaterials-cells
168 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomaterials-proteins
169 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomaterials-vaccines
170 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomedical-materials
171 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomineralization
172 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-and-rna
173 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-delivery
174 sg:ontologies/subjects/implants
175 sg:ontologies/subjects/tissues
176 skos:prefLabel Biomaterials
177 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomimetics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
178 rdf:type npg:Subject
179 skos:Concept
180 rdfs:label Biomimetics
181 skos:altLabel Biological Mimetic
182 Biological Mimetics
183 Biomimetic
184 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
185 skos:definition Biomimetics is an interdisciplinary field in which principles from engineering, chemistry and biology are applied to the synthesis of materials, synthetic systems or machines that have functions that mimic biological processes. Biomaterials are any natural or synthetic material that interacts with any part of a biological system. Biomimetic designs could be used in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and drug delivery.
186 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
187 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/biomimetic-synthesis
188 skos:prefLabel Biomimetics
189 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-delivery sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
190 rdf:type npg:Subject
191 skos:Concept
192 rdfs:label Cell delivery
193 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
194 skos:definition Cell delivery is a suite of methods that have two purposes, first to precisely deliver cellular therapeutics to a target site (tissue or organ) and second, to ensure that the delivered cell therapeutics work. Cell delivery is important because cellular therapeutics are fragile and preservation of their functionality is essential for efficacy.
195 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
196 skos:prefLabel Cell delivery
197 sg:ontologies/subjects/environmental-biotechnology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
198 rdf:type npg:Subject
199 skos:Concept
200 rdfs:label Environmental biotechnology
201 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
202 skos:definition Environmental biotechnology is the branch of biotechnology that addresses environmental problems, such as the removal of pollution, renewable energy generation or biomass production, by exploiting biological processes.
203 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
204 skos:prefLabel Environmental biotechnology
205 sg:ontologies/subjects/expression-systems sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
206 rdf:type npg:Subject
207 skos:Concept
208 rdfs:label Expression systems
209 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
210 skos:definition Expression systems are genetic constructs (a gene encoded by DNA) that are designed to produce a protein, or an RNA (ribonucleic acid), either inside or outside a cell. Expression systems are used in research and in the commercial production of enzymes or therapeutics.
211 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
212 skos:prefLabel Expression systems
213 sg:ontologies/subjects/functional-genomics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
214 rdf:type npg:Subject
215 skos:Concept
216 rdfs:label Functional genomics
217 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
218 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetics
219 skos:definition Functional genomics uses genomic data to study gene and protein expression and function on a global scale (genome-wide or system-wide), focusing on gene transcription, translation and protein-protein interactions, and often involving high-throughput methods.
220 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
221 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/epistasis
222 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-expression-profiling
223 sg:ontologies/subjects/mutagenesis
224 sg:ontologies/subjects/rnai
225 skos:prefLabel Functional genomics
226 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-delivery sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
227 rdf:type npg:Subject
228 skos:Concept
229 rdfs:label Gene delivery
230 skos:altLabel Transfection
231 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques
232 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
233 skos:definition Gene delivery is a process by which foreign DNA is transferred to host cells for applications such as genetic research or gene therapy. Gene delivery methods can be mechanical (e.g. microinjection, electroporation or biolistics), chemical (e.g. lipid or nanoparticle carriers) or biological (e.g. viral or bacterial vectors).
234 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
235 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/biolistics
236 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetic-transduction
237 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetic-vectors
238 sg:ontologies/subjects/transfection
239 skos:prefLabel Gene delivery
240 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-therapy sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
241 rdf:type npg:Subject
242 skos:Concept
243 rdfs:label Gene therapy
244 skos:altLabel DNA Therapy
245 Somatic Gene Therapy
246 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
247 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
248 sg:ontologies/subjects/clinical-genetics
249 sg:ontologies/subjects/therapeutics
250 skos:definition Gene therapy involves the introduction of new genes into cells, to restore or add gene expression, for the purpose of treating disease. Most commonly a mutated gene is replaced with DNA encoding a functional copy. Alternatively DNA encoding a therapeutic protein drug may be introduced.
251 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
252 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/targeted-gene-repair
253 skos:prefLabel Gene therapy
254 sg:ontologies/subjects/genomics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
255 rdf:type npg:Subject
256 skos:Concept
257 rdfs:label Genomics
258 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
259 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetics
260 skos:definition Genomics is the study of the full genetic complement of an organism (the genome). It employs recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing methods, and bioinformatics to sequence, assemble, and analyse the structure and function of genomes.
261 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
262 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/comparative-genomics
263 sg:ontologies/subjects/conservation-genomics
264 sg:ontologies/subjects/epigenomics
265 sg:ontologies/subjects/genome-assembly-algorithms
266 sg:ontologies/subjects/genome-evolution
267 sg:ontologies/subjects/medical-genomics
268 sg:ontologies/subjects/metagenomics
269 sg:ontologies/subjects/mobile-elements
270 sg:ontologies/subjects/nutrigenomics
271 sg:ontologies/subjects/personalized-medicine
272 sg:ontologies/subjects/pharmacogenomics
273 sg:ontologies/subjects/phylogenomics
274 sg:ontologies/subjects/transcriptomics
275 skos:prefLabel Genomics
276 sg:ontologies/subjects/industrial-microbiology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
277 rdf:type npg:Subject
278 skos:Concept
279 rdfs:label Industrial microbiology
280 skos:altLabel Applied microbiology
281 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
282 sg:ontologies/subjects/microbiology
283 skos:definition Industrial microbiology is a branch of applied microbiology in which microorganisms are used in industrial processes; for example, in the production of high-value products such as drugs, chemicals, fuels and electricity.
284 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
285 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/antimicrobials
286 sg:ontologies/subjects/biopolymers
287 sg:ontologies/subjects/bioremediation
288 sg:ontologies/subjects/environmental-microbiology
289 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolic-engineering
290 skos:prefLabel Industrial microbiology
291 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolic-engineering sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
292 rdf:type npg:Subject
293 skos:Concept
294 rdfs:label Metabolic engineering
295 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
296 sg:ontologies/subjects/industrial-microbiology
297 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering
298 sg:ontologies/subjects/systems-biology
299 skos:definition Metabolic engineering is the use of genetic engineering to modify the metabolism of an organism. It can involve the optimization of existing biochemical pathways or the introduction of pathway components, most commonly in bacteria, yeast or plants, with the goal of high-yield production of specific metabolites for medicine or biotechnology.
300 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
301 skos:prefLabel Metabolic engineering
302 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolomics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
303 rdf:type npg:Subject
304 skos:Concept
305 rdfs:label Metabolomics
306 skos:altLabel Metabolomic
307 Metabonomic
308 Metabonomics
309 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
310 sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques
311 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
312 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
313 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolism
314 skos:definition Metabolomics refers to the systematic identification and quantification of the small molecule metabolic products (the metabolome) of a biological system (cell, tissue, organ, biological fluid, or organism) at a specific point in time. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy are the techniques most often used for metabolome profiling.
315 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
316 skos:prefLabel Metabolomics
317 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
318 rdf:type npg:Subject
319 skos:Concept
320 rdfs:label Molecular engineering
321 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques
322 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
323 sg:ontologies/subjects/systems-biology
324 skos:definition Molecular engineering includes methods for the design and synthesis of novel molecules with desirable physical properties or functionalities.
325 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
326 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/antimicrobials
327 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolic-engineering
328 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-design
329 sg:ontologies/subjects/synthetic-biology
330 sg:ontologies/subjects/virtual-drug-screening
331 skos:prefLabel Molecular engineering
332 sg:ontologies/subjects/nanobiotechnology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
333 rdf:type npg:Subject
334 skos:Concept
335 rdfs:label Nanobiotechnology
336 skos:altLabel Bionanotechnology
337 nanobiology
338 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques
339 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
340 sg:ontologies/subjects/nanoscience-and-technology
341 skos:definition Nanobiotechnology is a discipline in which tools from nanotechnology are developed and applied to study biological phenomena. For example, nanoparticles can serve as probes, sensors or vehicles for biomolecule delivery in cellular systems.
342 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
343 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/applications-of-afm
344 sg:ontologies/subjects/bionanoelectronics
345 sg:ontologies/subjects/biosensors
346 sg:ontologies/subjects/microengraving
347 sg:ontologies/subjects/microfluidics
348 sg:ontologies/subjects/nanofabrication-and-nanopatterning
349 sg:ontologies/subjects/nanoparticles
350 sg:ontologies/subjects/nanopores
351 sg:ontologies/subjects/nanostructures
352 sg:ontologies/subjects/soft-lithography
353 skos:prefLabel Nanobiotechnology
354 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
355 rdf:type npg:Subject
356 skos:Concept
357 rdfs:label Nucleic-acid therapeutics
358 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
359 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
360 skos:definition Nucleic acid therapeutics are based on nucleic acids or closely related chemical compounds. They include antisense oligonucleotides, aptamers and small interfering RNAs, and are typically considered in cases where specific inhibition of the function of a particular gene involved in disease is thought to be therapeutically desirable.
361 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
362 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/antagomir-and-rna-sponge
363 sg:ontologies/subjects/antisense-oligonucleotide-therapy
364 sg:ontologies/subjects/locked-nucleic-acid
365 sg:ontologies/subjects/peptide-nucleic-acid-oligo
366 sg:ontologies/subjects/rnai-therapy
367 sg:ontologies/subjects/triplex-oligo
368 skos:prefLabel Nucleic-acid therapeutics
369 sg:ontologies/subjects/oligo-delivery sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
370 rdf:type npg:Subject
371 skos:Concept
372 rdfs:label Oligo delivery
373 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
374 skos:definition Oligonucleotide delivery is a method by which oligonucleotides are delivered into cells, or targeted to specific cell types, tissues or organs. This tool might be used, for example, to silence the expression of a gene. Both liposomes and nanoparticles — particles of 1-100nm in size — have been used for oligonucleotide delivery.
375 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
376 skos:prefLabel Oligo delivery
377 sg:ontologies/subjects/peptide-delivery sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
378 rdf:type npg:Subject
379 skos:Concept
380 rdfs:label Peptide delivery
381 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
382 skos:definition Peptide delivery is a method by which peptides are delivered into cells. Peptides could be used as drugs, for example to treat bacterial infections. Nanoparticles — particles of 1-100nm in size — and specially designed polymers have been used to deliver peptides into cells.
383 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
384 skos:prefLabel Peptide delivery
385 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-biotechnology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
386 rdf:type npg:Subject
387 skos:Concept
388 rdfs:label Plant biotechnology
389 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
390 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-sciences
391 skos:definition Plant biotechnology can be defined as the introduction of desirable traits into plants through genetic modification.
392 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
393 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/agricultural-genetics
394 sg:ontologies/subjects/field-trials
395 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering-in-plants
396 skos:prefLabel Plant biotechnology
397 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-delivery sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
398 rdf:type npg:Subject
399 skos:Concept
400 rdfs:label Protein delivery
401 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
402 skos:definition Protein delivery is the suite of methods by which proteins can be introduced into cells. Proteins can be exploited to produce potentially highly specific drugs. Protein delivery methods must maintain bioavailability and activity of proteins and should not be toxic.
403 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
404 skos:prefLabel Protein delivery
405 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteomics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
406 rdf:type npg:Subject
407 skos:Concept
408 rdfs:label Proteomics
409 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
410 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
411 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
412 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology
413 skos:definition Proteomics refers to the study of proteomes, but is also used to describe the techniques used to determine the entire set of proteins of an organism or system, such as protein purification and mass spectrometry.
414 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
415 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-protein-interaction-networks
416 skos:prefLabel Proteomics
417 sg:ontologies/subjects/regenerative-medicine sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
418 rdf:type npg:Subject
419 skos:Concept
420 rdfs:label Regenerative medicine
421 skos:altLabel Regenerative Medicines
422 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
423 skos:definition Regenerative medicine is the branch of medicine that develops methods to regrow, repair or replace damaged or diseased cells, organs or tissues. Regenerative medicine includes the generation and use of therapeutic stem cells, tissue engineering and the production of artificial organs.
424 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
425 skos:prefLabel Regenerative medicine
426 sg:ontologies/subjects/sequencing sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
427 rdf:type npg:Subject
428 skos:Concept
429 rdfs:label Sequencing
430 skos:altLabel Sequence Analyses
431 Sequence Analysis
432 Sequence Determination
433 Sequence Determinations
434 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques
435 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
436 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetics
437 skos:definition Sequencing refers to the techniques used to determine the primary structure of an unbranched biopolymer (DNA, RNA, protein, carbohydrate) resulting in a symbolic linear depiction of the monomeric subunits which summarizes much of the atomic-level structure of the molecule.
438 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
439 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-sequencing
440 sg:ontologies/subjects/next-generation-sequencing
441 sg:ontologies/subjects/polysaccharide-sequencing
442 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-sequencing
443 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-sequencing
444 sg:ontologies/subjects/sequence-annotation
445 sg:ontologies/subjects/targeted-resequencing
446 skos:prefLabel Sequencing
447 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cell-biotechnology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
448 rdf:type npg:Subject
449 skos:Concept
450 rdfs:label Stem-cell biotechnology
451 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
452 skos:definition Stem cell biotechnology is a field of biotechnology that develops tools and therapeutics through modification and engineering of stem cells. Stem cell biotechnology is important in regenerative medicine.
453 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
454 skos:prefLabel Stem-cell biotechnology
455 sg:ontologies/subjects/tissue-engineering sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
456 rdf:type npg:Subject
457 skos:Concept
458 rdfs:label Tissue engineering
459 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
460 skos:definition Tissue engineering is a set of methods that can replace or repair damaged or diseased tissues with natural, synthetic, or semisynthetic tissue mimics. These mimics can either be fully functional or will grow into the required functionality.
461 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
462 skos:prefLabel Tissue engineering
463 skos:Concept sgo:sdDataset for_codes
464 rdf:type rdfs:Class
465 rdfs:Resource
466 rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:Resource
467 skos:Concept
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...