Biologics


Ontology type: npg:Subject  | skos:Concept     


Concept Info

NAME

Biologics

DESCRIPTION

A biologic is a therapeutic substance that is produced through a biological process (often involving biotechnology methods), rather than chemical synthesis (as for traditional pharmaceuticals). Types of biologic include antibody therapies, vaccines, gene therapies and cell therapies.

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Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biologics'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biologics'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biologics'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biologics'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

346 TRIPLES      10 PREDICATES      37 URIs      11 LITERALS

Subject Predicate Object
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8 Biologic medicine
9 Biological
10 Biological Products
11 Biopharmaceutical
12 Natural Products
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15 skos:definition A biologic is a therapeutic substance that is produced through a biological process (often involving biotechnology methods), rather than chemical synthesis (as for traditional pharmaceuticals). Types of biologic include antibody therapies, vaccines, gene therapies and cell therapies.
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37 sg:ontologies/subjects/ dcterms:description The Nature Subjects Taxonomy is a polyhierarchical categorization of scholarly subject areas which are used for the indexing of content by Springer Nature.
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56 skos:definition Antagomirs and RNA sponges are both agents that are used to silence microRNAs. Antagomirs are chemically modified oligonucleotides that bind specifically to particular microRNAs and sponge RNAs are small synthetic RNAs that bind to multiple microRNAs that have the same sequence in their ‘seed region’.
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63 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
64 skos:definition Antibody fragment therapies are a type of biologic. They are typically fragments of monoclonal antibodies selected to bind to a particular protein (often a cell-surface protein), and produced using recombinant DNA technology.
65 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
66 skos:prefLabel Antibody fragment therapy
67 sg:ontologies/subjects/antibody-therapy sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
68 rdf:type npg:Subject
69 skos:Concept
70 rdfs:label Antibody therapy
71 skos:altLabel Immunoglobulin Therapies
72 Immunoglobulin Therapy
73 Normal Serum Globulin Therapy
74 Passive Antibody Transfer
75 Passive Antibody Transfers
76 Passive Immunization
77 Passive Immunizations
78 Passive Immunotherapies
79 Passive Immunotherapy
80 Passive Transfer of Immunity
81 Serotherapies
82 Serotherapy
83 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
84 skos:definition Antibody therapies are a type of biologic. They are typically monoclonal antibodies selected to bind to a particular protein (often a cell-surface protein), and produced using recombinant DNA technology.
85 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
86 skos:prefLabel Antibody therapy
87 sg:ontologies/subjects/antisense-oligonucleotide-therapy sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
88 rdf:type npg:Subject
89 skos:Concept
90 rdfs:label Antisense oligonucleotide therapy
91 skos:altLabel Anti Sense Oligonucleotides
92 Anti-Sense Oligonucleotides
93 Antisense Oligonucleotides
94 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
95 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics
96 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
97 skos:prefLabel Antisense oligonucleotide therapy
98 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
99 rdf:type npg:Subject
100 skos:Concept
101 rdfs:label Biotechnology
102 skos:altLabel Biotechnologies
103 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
104 skos:definition Biotechnology is a broad discipline in which biological processes, organisms, cells or cellular components are exploited to develop new technologies. New tools and products developed by biotechnologists are useful in research, agriculture, industry and the clinic.
105 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
106 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/animal-biotechnology
107 sg:ontologies/subjects/applied-immunology
108 sg:ontologies/subjects/assay-systems
109 sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
110 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomaterials
111 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomimetics
112 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-delivery
113 sg:ontologies/subjects/environmental-biotechnology
114 sg:ontologies/subjects/expression-systems
115 sg:ontologies/subjects/functional-genomics
116 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-delivery
117 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-therapy
118 sg:ontologies/subjects/genomics
119 sg:ontologies/subjects/industrial-microbiology
120 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolic-engineering
121 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolomics
122 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering
123 sg:ontologies/subjects/nanobiotechnology
124 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics
125 sg:ontologies/subjects/oligo-delivery
126 sg:ontologies/subjects/peptide-delivery
127 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-biotechnology
128 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-delivery
129 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteomics
130 sg:ontologies/subjects/regenerative-medicine
131 sg:ontologies/subjects/sequencing
132 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cell-biotechnology
133 sg:ontologies/subjects/tissue-engineering
134 skos:prefLabel Biotechnology
135 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-therapies sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
136 rdf:type npg:Subject
137 skos:Concept
138 rdfs:label Cell therapies
139 skos:altLabel Biogenic Stimulator
140 Biogenic Stimulators
141 Cell Therapy
142 Tissue Therapy
143 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
144 skos:definition A cell therapy is a medicinal product containing cells, and is typically injected into a patient. Examples include bone marrow transplants (also known as haematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and mesenchymal stem cell therapies.
145 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
146 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cell-therapies
147 skos:prefLabel Cell therapies
148 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-vaccines sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
149 rdf:type npg:Subject
150 skos:Concept
151 rdfs:label DNA vaccines
152 skos:altLabel DNA Vaccine
153 Naked DNA Vaccine
154 Naked DNA Vaccines
155 Nucleic Acid Vaccine
156 Nucleic Acid Vaccines
157 Polynucleotide Vaccine
158 Polynucleotide Vaccines
159 Recombinant DNA Vaccine
160 Recombinant DNA Vaccines
161 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
162 sg:ontologies/subjects/vaccines
163 skos:definition A DNA vaccine is a substance that is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and encodes antigens. After administration of the DNA, antigens are produced and stimulate an immune response.
164 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
165 skos:prefLabel DNA vaccines
166 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-discovery sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
167 rdf:type npg:Subject
168 skos:Concept
169 rdfs:label Drug discovery
170 skos:altLabel Drug Prospecting
171 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
172 skos:definition Drug discovery is the process through which potential new medicines are identified. It involves a wide range of scientific disciplines, including biology, chemistry and pharmacology.
173 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
174 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
175 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomarkers
176 sg:ontologies/subjects/business-strategy-in-drug-development
177 sg:ontologies/subjects/clinical-trials
178 sg:ontologies/subjects/diagnostics
179 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-delivery
180 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-regulation
181 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-safety
182 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-screening
183 sg:ontologies/subjects/medicinal-chemistry
184 sg:ontologies/subjects/pharmaceutics
185 sg:ontologies/subjects/pharmacology
186 sg:ontologies/subjects/target-identification
187 sg:ontologies/subjects/target-validation
188 sg:ontologies/subjects/toxicology
189 skos:prefLabel Drug discovery
190 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-therapy sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
191 rdf:type npg:Subject
192 skos:Concept
193 rdfs:label Gene therapy
194 skos:altLabel DNA Therapy
195 Somatic Gene Therapy
196 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
197 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
198 sg:ontologies/subjects/clinical-genetics
199 sg:ontologies/subjects/therapeutics
200 skos:definition Gene therapy involves the introduction of new genes into cells, to restore or add gene expression, for the purpose of treating disease. Most commonly a mutated gene is replaced with DNA encoding a functional copy. Alternatively DNA encoding a therapeutic protein drug may be introduced.
201 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
202 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/targeted-gene-repair
203 skos:prefLabel Gene therapy
204 sg:ontologies/subjects/locked-nucleic-acid sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
205 rdf:type npg:Subject
206 skos:Concept
207 rdfs:label Locked nucleic acid
208 skos:altLabel Inaccessible RNA
209 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
210 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics
211 skos:definition In locked nucleic acids (LNAs), the ribose ring is locked in a particular conformation by the introduction of a 2′-O-,4′-C methylene bridge, which increases the affinity for complementary RNA or DNA. LNAs are used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of molecular biology tools such as DNA microarrays and LNA-based oligonucleotides are being developed as antisense therapies.
212 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
213 skos:prefLabel Locked nucleic acid
214 sg:ontologies/subjects/meganucleases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
215 rdf:type npg:Subject
216 skos:Concept
217 rdfs:label Meganucleases
218 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
219 skos:definition Meganucleases are endodeoxyribonucleases that have a large recognition site, which occurs rarely, even in entire genomes. Consequently, they can be used as highly specific tools in genome engineering; for example, to modify or eliminate a particular gene.
220 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
221 skos:prefLabel Meganucleases
222 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
223 rdf:type npg:Subject
224 skos:Concept
225 rdfs:label Nucleic-acid therapeutics
226 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
227 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology
228 skos:definition Nucleic acid therapeutics are based on nucleic acids or closely related chemical compounds. They include antisense oligonucleotides, aptamers and small interfering RNAs, and are typically considered in cases where specific inhibition of the function of a particular gene involved in disease is thought to be therapeutically desirable.
229 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
230 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/antagomir-and-rna-sponge
231 sg:ontologies/subjects/antisense-oligonucleotide-therapy
232 sg:ontologies/subjects/locked-nucleic-acid
233 sg:ontologies/subjects/peptide-nucleic-acid-oligo
234 sg:ontologies/subjects/rnai-therapy
235 sg:ontologies/subjects/triplex-oligo
236 skos:prefLabel Nucleic-acid therapeutics
237 sg:ontologies/subjects/peptide-nucleic-acid-oligo sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
238 rdf:type npg:Subject
239 skos:Concept
240 rdfs:label Peptide nucleic acid oligo
241 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
242 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics
243 skos:definition Peptide nucleic acids are synthetic polymers that mimic the structure of DNA or RNA. PNAs are used in various molecular biology techniques involving specific recognition of a complementary DNA or RNA strand and have been investigated as the basis for diagnostics and antisense therapies.
244 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
245 skos:prefLabel Peptide nucleic acid oligo
246 sg:ontologies/subjects/recombinant-peptide-therapy sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
247 rdf:type npg:Subject
248 skos:Concept
249 rdfs:label Recombinant peptide therapy
250 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
251 skos:definition A recombinant peptide therapy is produced through recombinant DNA technology. This involves inserting the DNA encoding the peptide into bacterial or mammalian cells, expressing the peptide in these cells and then purifying it from them.
252 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
253 skos:prefLabel Recombinant peptide therapy
254 sg:ontologies/subjects/recombinant-protein-therapy sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
255 rdf:type npg:Subject
256 skos:Concept
257 rdfs:label Recombinant protein therapy
258 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
259 skos:definition A recombinant protein therapy is produced through recombinant DNA technology, which involves inserting the DNA encoding the protein into bacterial or mammalian cells, expressing the protein in these cells and then purifying it from them. Many biologics, such as monoclonal antibodies, are recombinant protein therapies.
260 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
261 skos:prefLabel Recombinant protein therapy
262 sg:ontologies/subjects/recombinant-vaccine sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
263 rdf:type npg:Subject
264 skos:Concept
265 rdfs:label Recombinant vaccine
266 skos:altLabel Chemical Vaccines
267 Molecular Vaccines
268 Recombinant Vaccines
269 Semisynthetic Vaccines
270 Synthetic Antigens
271 Synthetic Immunogens
272 Synthetic Vaccines
273 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
274 skos:definition A recombinant vaccine is a vaccine produced through recombinant DNA technology. This involves inserting the DNA encoding an antigen (such as a bacterial surface protein) that stimulates an immune response into bacterial or mammalian cells, expressing the antigen in these cells and then purifying it from them.
275 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
276 skos:prefLabel Recombinant vaccine
277 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-vaccines sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
278 rdf:type npg:Subject
279 skos:Concept
280 rdfs:label RNA vaccines
281 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
282 sg:ontologies/subjects/vaccines
283 skos:definition RNA vaccines are composed of the nucleic acid RNA, which encode antigen genes of an infectious agent. When administered to host cells, the RNA is translated into protein antigens that elicit protective immunity against the infectious agent.
284 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
285 skos:prefLabel RNA vaccines
286 sg:ontologies/subjects/sirnas sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
287 rdf:type npg:Subject
288 skos:Concept
289 rdfs:label siRNAs
290 skos:altLabel Piwi Interacting RNA
291 Piwi-Interacting RNA
292 Repeat Associated siRNA
293 Repeat-Associated siRNA
294 Scan RNA
295 Short Hairpin RNA
296 Short Interfering RNA
297 Small Hairpin RNA
298 Small Scan RNA
299 Trans Acting siRNA
300 Trans-Acting siRNA
301 piRNA
302 scnRNA
303 shRNA
304 siRNA
305 tasiRNA
306 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
307 sg:ontologies/subjects/non-coding-rnas
308 skos:definition siRNAs (small interfering RNAs) are double-stranded RNA molecules 20–25 bases in length with 2 nucleotide overhangs that are produced through the enzymatic cleavage of longer precursor RNAs by the ribonuclease Dicer. siRNAs can limit the expression of specific genes by targeting their RNA for destruction through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway.
309 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
310 skos:prefLabel siRNAs
311 sg:ontologies/subjects/tal-effector-nuclease sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
312 rdf:type npg:Subject
313 skos:Concept
314 rdfs:label TAL effector nuclease
315 skos:altLabel TALENs
316 Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases
317 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
318 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-targeting
319 skos:definition TAL (transcription activator-like) effector nucleases (TALENs) are enzymes that cut DNA at a specific sequence recognized by the TAL effector domain. TAL effectors can be engineered to recognize different sequences, and TALENs are used as genetic engineering tools to introduce insertions or deletions at cut sites in living cells.
320 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
321 skos:prefLabel TAL effector nuclease
322 sg:ontologies/subjects/triplex-oligo sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
323 rdf:type npg:Subject
324 skos:Concept
325 rdfs:label Triplex-forming oligonucleotide
326 skos:altLabel Triplex oligo
327 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
328 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics
329 skos:definition Triplex-forming oligonucleotides bind in the major groove of duplex DNA in a sequence-specific manner through the formation of hydrogen bonds. They can be used to inhibit the expression of particular genes.
330 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
331 skos:prefLabel Triplex-forming oligonucleotide
332 sg:ontologies/subjects/zinc-finger-nuclease sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
333 rdf:type npg:Subject
334 skos:Concept
335 rdfs:label Zinc finger nuclease
336 skos:altLabel ZFN
337 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
338 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-targeting
339 skos:definition Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are synthetic proteins used for gene targeting. They consist of a DNA-cutting endonculease domain fused to zinc finger domains engineered to bind a specific DNA sequence. ZFNs are used to introduce insertions or deletions at cut sites in the genomes of living cells.
340 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
341 skos:prefLabel Zinc finger nuclease
342 skos:Concept sgo:sdDataset for_codes
343 rdf:type rdfs:Class
344 rdfs:Resource
345 rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:Resource
346 skos:Concept
 




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