Biological sciences


Ontology type: npg:Subject  | skos:Concept     


Concept Info

NAME

Biological sciences

DESCRIPTION

Biological sciences encompasses all the divisions of natural sciences examining various aspects of vital processes. The concept includes anatomy, physiology, cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics, and covers all organisms from microorganisms, animals to plants.

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Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

970 TRIPLES      10 PREDICATES      40 URIs      11 LITERALS

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95 skos:prefLabel Biochemistry
96 sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-techniques sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
97 rdf:type npg:Subject
98 skos:Concept
99 rdfs:label Biological techniques
100 skos:altLabel Methodological Studies
101 Methodological Study
102 Methods
103 Procedure
104 Procedures
105 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
106 skos:definition Biological techniques are methods or procedures that are used to study living things. They include experimental and computational methods, approaches, protocols and tools for biological research.
107 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
108 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/analytical-biochemistry
109 sg:ontologies/subjects/behavioural-methods
110 sg:ontologies/subjects/bioinformatics
111 sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-models
112 sg:ontologies/subjects/biophysical-methods
113 sg:ontologies/subjects/cytological-techniques
114 sg:ontologies/subjects/electrophysiology
115 sg:ontologies/subjects/epigenetics-analysis
116 sg:ontologies/subjects/experimental-organisms
117 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-delivery
118 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-expression-analysis
119 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetic-engineering
120 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetic-techniques
121 sg:ontologies/subjects/genomic-analysis
122 sg:ontologies/subjects/high-throughput-screening
123 sg:ontologies/subjects/imaging
124 sg:ontologies/subjects/immunological-techniques
125 sg:ontologies/subjects/isolation-separation-purification
126 sg:ontologies/subjects/lab-on-a-chip
127 sg:ontologies/subjects/mass-spectrometry
128 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolomics
129 sg:ontologies/subjects/microbiology-techniques
130 sg:ontologies/subjects/microscopy
131 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering
132 sg:ontologies/subjects/nanobiotechnology
133 sg:ontologies/subjects/optogenetics
134 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteomic-analysis
135 sg:ontologies/subjects/sensors-and-probes
136 sg:ontologies/subjects/sequencing
137 sg:ontologies/subjects/software
138 sg:ontologies/subjects/spectroscopy
139 sg:ontologies/subjects/structure-determination
140 skos:prefLabel Biological techniques
141 sg:ontologies/subjects/biophysics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
142 rdf:type npg:Subject
143 skos:Concept
144 rdfs:label Biophysics
145 skos:altLabel Biological physics
146 Physics of biology
147 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
148 skos:definition Biophysics is the study of physical phenomena and physical processes in living things, on scales spanning molecules, cells, tissues and organisms. Biophysicists use the principles and methods of physics to understand biological systems. It is an interdisciplinary science, closely related to quantitative and systems biology.
149 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
150 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/bioenergetics
151 sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-fluorescence
152 sg:ontologies/subjects/biopolymers-in-vivo
153 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-biophysics
154 sg:ontologies/subjects/endocytosis
155 sg:ontologies/subjects/exocytosis
156 sg:ontologies/subjects/intrinsically-disordered-proteins
157 sg:ontologies/subjects/membrane-biophysics
158 sg:ontologies/subjects/membrane-structure-and-assembly
159 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biophysics
160 sg:ontologies/subjects/motility
161 sg:ontologies/subjects/nanoscale-biophysics
162 sg:ontologies/subjects/permeation-and-transport
163 sg:ontologies/subjects/single-molecule-biophysics
164 skos:prefLabel Biophysics
165 sg:ontologies/subjects/biotechnology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
166 rdf:type npg:Subject
167 skos:Concept
168 rdfs:label Biotechnology
169 skos:altLabel Biotechnologies
170 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
171 skos:definition Biotechnology is a broad discipline in which biological processes, organisms, cells or cellular components are exploited to develop new technologies. New tools and products developed by biotechnologists are useful in research, agriculture, industry and the clinic.
172 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
173 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/animal-biotechnology
174 sg:ontologies/subjects/applied-immunology
175 sg:ontologies/subjects/assay-systems
176 sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
177 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomaterials
178 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomimetics
179 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-delivery
180 sg:ontologies/subjects/environmental-biotechnology
181 sg:ontologies/subjects/expression-systems
182 sg:ontologies/subjects/functional-genomics
183 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-delivery
184 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-therapy
185 sg:ontologies/subjects/genomics
186 sg:ontologies/subjects/industrial-microbiology
187 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolic-engineering
188 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolomics
189 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering
190 sg:ontologies/subjects/nanobiotechnology
191 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acid-therapeutics
192 sg:ontologies/subjects/oligo-delivery
193 sg:ontologies/subjects/peptide-delivery
194 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-biotechnology
195 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-delivery
196 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteomics
197 sg:ontologies/subjects/regenerative-medicine
198 sg:ontologies/subjects/sequencing
199 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cell-biotechnology
200 sg:ontologies/subjects/tissue-engineering
201 skos:prefLabel Biotechnology
202 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
203 rdf:type npg:Subject
204 skos:Concept
205 rdfs:label Cancer
206 skos:altLabel Benign Neoplasm
207 Benign Neoplasms
208 Benign Tumor
209 Benign Tumors
210 Benign Tumour
211 Benign Tumours
212 Cancers
213 Neoplasia
214 Neoplasm
215 Neoplasms
216 Tumor
217 Tumors
218 Tumour
219 Tumours
220 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
221 sg:ontologies/subjects/diseases
222 sg:ontologies/subjects/oncology
223 skos:definition Cancer is a complex disease in which cells in a specific tissue are no longer fully responsive to the signals within the tissue that regulate cellular differentiation, survival, proliferation and death. As a result, these cells accumulate within the tissue, causing local damage and inflammation. There are over 200 different types of cancer.
224 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
225 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/bone-cancer
226 sg:ontologies/subjects/breast-cancer
227 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-epidemiology
228 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-genetics
229 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-genomics
230 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-imaging
231 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-metabolism
232 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-microenvironment
233 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-models
234 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-of-unknown-primary
235 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-prevention
236 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-screening
237 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-stem-cells
238 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-therapy
239 sg:ontologies/subjects/cns-cancer
240 sg:ontologies/subjects/cysts
241 sg:ontologies/subjects/embryonal-neoplasms
242 sg:ontologies/subjects/endocrine-cancer
243 sg:ontologies/subjects/eye-cancer
244 sg:ontologies/subjects/gastrointestinal-cancer
245 sg:ontologies/subjects/germ-cell-tumours
246 sg:ontologies/subjects/gynaecological-cancer
247 sg:ontologies/subjects/haematological-cancer
248 sg:ontologies/subjects/hamartoma
249 sg:ontologies/subjects/head-and-neck-cancer
250 sg:ontologies/subjects/lung-cancer
251 sg:ontologies/subjects/mesothelioma
252 sg:ontologies/subjects/metastases
253 sg:ontologies/subjects/oncogenes
254 sg:ontologies/subjects/oral-cancer
255 sg:ontologies/subjects/paediatric-cancer
256 sg:ontologies/subjects/sarcoma
257 sg:ontologies/subjects/skin-cancer
258 sg:ontologies/subjects/testicular-cancer
259 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-angiogenesis
260 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-biomarkers
261 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-heterogeneity
262 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-immunology
263 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-suppressor-proteins
264 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-virus-infections
265 sg:ontologies/subjects/urological-cancer
266 skos:prefLabel Cancer
267 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-biology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
268 rdf:type npg:Subject
269 skos:Concept
270 rdfs:label Cell biology
271 skos:altLabel Cell Biologies
272 Cellular Biologies
273 Cellular Biology
274 Cytology
275 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
276 skos:definition Cell biology is the discipline of biological sciences that studies the structure, physiology, growth, reproduction and death of cells. Research in cell biology uses microscopic and molecular tools and examines all cell types, from unicellular organisms such as protozoa to the specialised cells that consitutute multicellular organisms.
277 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
278 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/autophagy
279 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-adhesion
280 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-death
281 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-division
282 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-growth
283 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-migration
284 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-polarity
285 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-signalling
286 sg:ontologies/subjects/cellular-imaging
287 sg:ontologies/subjects/chromosomes
288 sg:ontologies/subjects/circadian-rhythms
289 sg:ontologies/subjects/cytoskeleton
290 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycobiology
291 sg:ontologies/subjects/mechanisms-of-disease
292 sg:ontologies/subjects/membrane-trafficking
293 sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-organization
294 sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-transport
295 sg:ontologies/subjects/organelles
296 sg:ontologies/subjects/post-translational-modifications
297 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-folding
298 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-transport
299 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteolysis
300 sg:ontologies/subjects/senescence
301 skos:prefLabel Cell biology
302 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
303 rdf:type npg:Subject
304 skos:Concept
305 rdfs:label Chemical biology
306 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
307 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemistry
308 skos:definition Chemical biology is the study of the chemicals and chemical reactions involved in biological processes, incorporating the disciplines of bioorganic chemistry, biochemistry, cell biology and pharmacology. Chemicals – including natural small molecules, such as lipids, carbohydrates and metals, or non-natural probe or drug molecules – are used to gain insight into biological problems at a mechanistic level.
309 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
310 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/biocatalysis
311 sg:ontologies/subjects/biophysical-chemistry
312 sg:ontologies/subjects/biosynthesis
313 sg:ontologies/subjects/carbohydrates
314 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-ecology
315 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-genetics
316 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-libraries
317 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-modification
318 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-tools
319 sg:ontologies/subjects/cheminformatics
320 sg:ontologies/subjects/combinatorial-libraries
321 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-chemistry
322 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna
323 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-delivery
324 sg:ontologies/subjects/enzyme-mechanisms
325 sg:ontologies/subjects/enzymes
326 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycobiology
327 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycomics
328 sg:ontologies/subjects/ion-channels
329 sg:ontologies/subjects/kinases
330 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipidomics
331 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipids
332 sg:ontologies/subjects/mechanism-of-action
333 sg:ontologies/subjects/membranes
334 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolic-pathways
335 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolomics
336 sg:ontologies/subjects/metals
337 sg:ontologies/subjects/natural-products
338 sg:ontologies/subjects/networks-and-systems-biology
339 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleic-acids
340 sg:ontologies/subjects/peptides
341 sg:ontologies/subjects/pharmacology
342 sg:ontologies/subjects/post-translational-modifications
343 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteases
344 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-design
345 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-folding
346 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
347 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteomics
348 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna
349 sg:ontologies/subjects/screening
350 sg:ontologies/subjects/small-molecules
351 sg:ontologies/subjects/synthetic-biology
352 sg:ontologies/subjects/target-identification
353 sg:ontologies/subjects/target-validation
354 sg:ontologies/subjects/transporters
355 skos:prefLabel Chemical biology
356 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-biology-and-bioinformatics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
357 rdf:type npg:Subject
358 skos:Concept
359 rdfs:label Computational biology and bioinformatics
360 skos:altLabel Bio-Informatics
361 Bioinformatics
362 Computational Molecular Biology
363 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
364 skos:definition Computational biology and bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops and applies computational methods to analyse large collections of biological data, such as genetic sequences, cell populations or protein samples, to make new predictions or discover new biology. The computational methods used include analytical methods, mathematical modelling and simulation.
365 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
366 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemical-reaction-networks
367 sg:ontologies/subjects/cellular-signalling-networks
368 sg:ontologies/subjects/classification-and-taxonomy
369 sg:ontologies/subjects/communication-and-replication
370 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-models
371 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-neuroscience
372 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-platforms-and-environments
373 sg:ontologies/subjects/data-acquisition
374 sg:ontologies/subjects/data-integration
375 sg:ontologies/subjects/data-mining
376 sg:ontologies/subjects/data-processing
377 sg:ontologies/subjects/data-publication-and-archiving
378 sg:ontologies/subjects/databases
379 sg:ontologies/subjects/functional-clustering
380 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-ontology
381 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-regulatory-networks
382 sg:ontologies/subjects/genome-informatics
383 sg:ontologies/subjects/hardware-and-infrastructure
384 sg:ontologies/subjects/high-throughput-screening
385 sg:ontologies/subjects/image-processing
386 sg:ontologies/subjects/literature-mining
387 sg:ontologies/subjects/machine-learning
388 sg:ontologies/subjects/microarrays
389 sg:ontologies/subjects/network-topology
390 sg:ontologies/subjects/phylogeny
391 sg:ontologies/subjects/power-law
392 sg:ontologies/subjects/predictive-medicine
393 sg:ontologies/subjects/probabilistic-data-networks
394 sg:ontologies/subjects/programming-language-and-code
395 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-analysis
396 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-design
397 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-folding
398 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-function-predictions
399 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-structure-predictions
400 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteome-informatics
401 sg:ontologies/subjects/quality-control
402 sg:ontologies/subjects/scale-invariance
403 sg:ontologies/subjects/sequence-annotation
404 sg:ontologies/subjects/software
405 sg:ontologies/subjects/standards
406 sg:ontologies/subjects/statistical-methods
407 sg:ontologies/subjects/virtual-drug-screening
408 skos:prefLabel Computational biology and bioinformatics
409 sg:ontologies/subjects/developmental-biology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
410 rdf:type npg:Subject
411 skos:Concept
412 rdfs:label Developmental biology
413 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
414 skos:definition Developmental biology is the field of biology that studies the processes by which multicellular organisms grow and develop, controlled by their genes. Knowledge of normal developmental processes can aid in the understanding of developmental abnormalities and other conditions such as cancer.
415 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
416 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/ageing
417 sg:ontologies/subjects/angiogenesis
418 sg:ontologies/subjects/bone-development
419 sg:ontologies/subjects/bone-remodelling
420 sg:ontologies/subjects/cartilage-development
421 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-growth
422 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-proliferation
423 sg:ontologies/subjects/ciliogenesis
424 sg:ontologies/subjects/differentiation
425 sg:ontologies/subjects/disease-model
426 sg:ontologies/subjects/embryogenesis
427 sg:ontologies/subjects/embryology
428 sg:ontologies/subjects/epigenetic-memory
429 sg:ontologies/subjects/experimental-organisms
430 sg:ontologies/subjects/germline-development
431 sg:ontologies/subjects/haematopoiesis
432 sg:ontologies/subjects/intrauterine-growth
433 sg:ontologies/subjects/lymphangiogenesis
434 sg:ontologies/subjects/morphogenesis
435 sg:ontologies/subjects/neurogenesis
436 sg:ontologies/subjects/organogenesis
437 sg:ontologies/subjects/pattern-formation
438 sg:ontologies/subjects/pluripotency
439 sg:ontologies/subjects/reprogramming
440 sg:ontologies/subjects/self-renewal
441 sg:ontologies/subjects/senescence
442 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cell-niche
443 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cells
444 sg:ontologies/subjects/transdifferentiation
445 skos:prefLabel Developmental biology
446 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-discovery sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
447 rdf:type npg:Subject
448 skos:Concept
449 rdfs:label Drug discovery
450 skos:altLabel Drug Prospecting
451 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
452 skos:definition Drug discovery is the process through which potential new medicines are identified. It involves a wide range of scientific disciplines, including biology, chemistry and pharmacology.
453 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
454 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/biologics
455 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomarkers
456 sg:ontologies/subjects/business-strategy-in-drug-development
457 sg:ontologies/subjects/clinical-trials
458 sg:ontologies/subjects/diagnostics
459 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-delivery
460 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-regulation
461 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-safety
462 sg:ontologies/subjects/drug-screening
463 sg:ontologies/subjects/medicinal-chemistry
464 sg:ontologies/subjects/pharmaceutics
465 sg:ontologies/subjects/pharmacology
466 sg:ontologies/subjects/target-identification
467 sg:ontologies/subjects/target-validation
468 sg:ontologies/subjects/toxicology
469 skos:prefLabel Drug discovery
470 sg:ontologies/subjects/ecology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
471 rdf:type npg:Subject
472 skos:Concept
473 rdfs:label Ecology
474 skos:altLabel Bionomics
475 Ecologies
476 Environmental Science
477 Environmental Sciences
478 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
479 sg:ontologies/subjects/earth-and-environmental-sciences
480 skos:definition Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment. It considers processes that occur at the population, community and ecosystem levels and has a particular focus on biodiversity.
481 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
482 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/agri-ecology
483 sg:ontologies/subjects/animal-migration
484 sg:ontologies/subjects/behavioural-ecology
485 sg:ontologies/subjects/biodiversity
486 sg:ontologies/subjects/biogeochemistry
487 sg:ontologies/subjects/biogeography
488 sg:ontologies/subjects/biooceanography
489 sg:ontologies/subjects/boreal-ecology
490 sg:ontologies/subjects/climate-change-ecology
491 sg:ontologies/subjects/community-ecology
492 sg:ontologies/subjects/conservation
493 sg:ontologies/subjects/ecological-epidemiology
494 sg:ontologies/subjects/ecological-genetics
495 sg:ontologies/subjects/ecological-modelling
496 sg:ontologies/subjects/ecological-networks
497 sg:ontologies/subjects/ecophysiology
498 sg:ontologies/subjects/ecosystem-ecology
499 sg:ontologies/subjects/ecosystem-services
500 sg:ontologies/subjects/environmental-economics
501 sg:ontologies/subjects/evolutionary-ecology
502 sg:ontologies/subjects/fire-ecology
503 sg:ontologies/subjects/forest-ecology
504 sg:ontologies/subjects/forestry
505 sg:ontologies/subjects/freshwater-ecology
506 sg:ontologies/subjects/grassland-ecology
507 sg:ontologies/subjects/invasive-species
508 sg:ontologies/subjects/macroecology
509 sg:ontologies/subjects/microbial-ecology
510 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-ecology
511 sg:ontologies/subjects/palaeoecology
512 sg:ontologies/subjects/population-dynamics
513 sg:ontologies/subjects/restoration-ecology
514 sg:ontologies/subjects/riparian-ecology
515 sg:ontologies/subjects/stable-isotopes
516 sg:ontologies/subjects/theoretical-ecology
517 sg:ontologies/subjects/tropical-ecology
518 sg:ontologies/subjects/urban-ecology
519 sg:ontologies/subjects/wetlands-ecology
520 skos:prefLabel Ecology
521 sg:ontologies/subjects/evolution sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
522 rdf:type npg:Subject
523 skos:Concept
524 rdfs:label Evolution
525 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
526 skos:definition Evolution is the process of heritable change in populations of organisms over multiple generations. Evolutionary biology is the study of this process, which can occur through mechanisms including natural selection, sexual selection and genetic drift.
527 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
528 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/anthropology
529 sg:ontologies/subjects/archaeology
530 sg:ontologies/subjects/coevolution
531 sg:ontologies/subjects/cultural-evolution
532 sg:ontologies/subjects/evolutionary-developmental-biology
533 sg:ontologies/subjects/evolutionary-genetics
534 sg:ontologies/subjects/evolutionary-theory
535 sg:ontologies/subjects/experimental-evolution
536 sg:ontologies/subjects/mimicry
537 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-evolution
538 sg:ontologies/subjects/origin-of-life
539 sg:ontologies/subjects/palaeontology
540 sg:ontologies/subjects/phylogenetics
541 sg:ontologies/subjects/population-genetics
542 sg:ontologies/subjects/sexual-selection
543 sg:ontologies/subjects/social-evolution
544 sg:ontologies/subjects/speciation
545 sg:ontologies/subjects/taxonomy
546 skos:prefLabel Evolution
547 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetics sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
548 rdf:type npg:Subject
549 skos:Concept
550 rdfs:label Genetics
551 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
552 skos:definition Genetics is the branch of science concerned with genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms. It seeks to understand the process of trait inheritance from parents to offspring, including the molecular structure and function of genes, gene behaviour in the context of a cell or organism (e.g. dominance and epigenetics), gene distribution, and variation and change in populations.
553 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
554 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/agricultural-genetics
555 sg:ontologies/subjects/animal-breeding
556 sg:ontologies/subjects/behavioural-genetics
557 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-genetics
558 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-genomics
559 sg:ontologies/subjects/clinical-genetics
560 sg:ontologies/subjects/consanguinity
561 sg:ontologies/subjects/crispr-cas-systems
562 sg:ontologies/subjects/cytogenetics
563 sg:ontologies/subjects/development
564 sg:ontologies/subjects/epigenetics
565 sg:ontologies/subjects/epigenomics
566 sg:ontologies/subjects/eukaryote
567 sg:ontologies/subjects/evolutionary-biology
568 sg:ontologies/subjects/functional-genomics
569 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-expression
570 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-regulation
571 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetic-association-study
572 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetic-hybridization
573 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetic-interaction
574 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetic-linkage-study
575 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetic-markers
576 sg:ontologies/subjects/genome
577 sg:ontologies/subjects/genomic-instability
578 sg:ontologies/subjects/genomics
579 sg:ontologies/subjects/genotype
580 sg:ontologies/subjects/haplotypes
581 sg:ontologies/subjects/heritable-quantitative-trait
582 sg:ontologies/subjects/immunogenetics
583 sg:ontologies/subjects/inbreeding
584 sg:ontologies/subjects/medical-genetics
585 sg:ontologies/subjects/microbial-genetics
586 sg:ontologies/subjects/mutation
587 sg:ontologies/subjects/neurodevelopmental-disorders
588 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-breeding
589 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-genetics
590 sg:ontologies/subjects/polyploidy
591 sg:ontologies/subjects/population-genetics
592 sg:ontologies/subjects/prokaryote
593 sg:ontologies/subjects/quantitative-trait
594 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-splicing
595 sg:ontologies/subjects/rnai
596 sg:ontologies/subjects/sequencing
597 skos:prefLabel Genetics
598 sg:ontologies/subjects/immunology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
599 rdf:type npg:Subject
600 skos:Concept
601 rdfs:label Immunology
602 skos:altLabel Allergies (Specialty)
603 Allergy (Specialty)
604 Allergy and Immunology
605 Immunology and Allergy
606 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
607 skos:definition Immunology is the branch of biomedical sciences concerned with all aspects of the immune system in all multicellular organisms.
608 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
609 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/adaptive-immunity
610 sg:ontologies/subjects/antigen-processing-and-presentation
611 sg:ontologies/subjects/antimicrobial-responses
612 sg:ontologies/subjects/applied-immunology
613 sg:ontologies/subjects/autoimmunity
614 sg:ontologies/subjects/bone-marrow-transplantation
615 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-death-and-immune-response
616 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemokines
617 sg:ontologies/subjects/coagulation-system
618 sg:ontologies/subjects/complement-cascade
619 sg:ontologies/subjects/cytokines
620 sg:ontologies/subjects/gene-regulation-in-immune-cells
621 sg:ontologies/subjects/haematopoiesis
622 sg:ontologies/subjects/imaging-the-immune-system
623 sg:ontologies/subjects/immune-cell-death
624 sg:ontologies/subjects/immune-evasion
625 sg:ontologies/subjects/immunogenetics
626 sg:ontologies/subjects/immunological-disorders
627 sg:ontologies/subjects/immunotherapy
628 sg:ontologies/subjects/infection
629 sg:ontologies/subjects/infectious-diseases
630 sg:ontologies/subjects/inflammation
631 sg:ontologies/subjects/innate-immune-cells
632 sg:ontologies/subjects/innate-immunity
633 sg:ontologies/subjects/lymphatic-system
634 sg:ontologies/subjects/lymphocytes
635 sg:ontologies/subjects/lymphoid-tissues
636 sg:ontologies/subjects/mucosal-immunology
637 sg:ontologies/subjects/neuroimmunology
638 sg:ontologies/subjects/osteoimmunology
639 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-immunology
640 sg:ontologies/subjects/signal-transduction
641 sg:ontologies/subjects/translational-immunology
642 sg:ontologies/subjects/transplant-immunology
643 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-immunology
644 sg:ontologies/subjects/vaccines
645 skos:prefLabel Immunology
646 sg:ontologies/subjects/microbiology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
647 rdf:type npg:Subject
648 skos:Concept
649 rdfs:label Microbiology
650 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
651 skos:definition Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi and protozoa. This discipline includes fundamental research on the biochemistry, physiology, cell biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of microorganisms, including the host response to these agents.
652 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
653 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/antimicrobials
654 sg:ontologies/subjects/applied-microbiology
655 sg:ontologies/subjects/archaea
656 sg:ontologies/subjects/bacteria
657 sg:ontologies/subjects/bacteriology
658 sg:ontologies/subjects/bacteriophages
659 sg:ontologies/subjects/biofilms
660 sg:ontologies/subjects/biogeochemistry
661 sg:ontologies/subjects/cellular-microbiology
662 sg:ontologies/subjects/clinical-microbiology
663 sg:ontologies/subjects/communities
664 sg:ontologies/subjects/crispr-cas-systems
665 sg:ontologies/subjects/environmental-microbiology
666 sg:ontologies/subjects/fungi
667 sg:ontologies/subjects/industrial-microbiology
668 sg:ontologies/subjects/infectious-disease-diagnostics
669 sg:ontologies/subjects/microbial-genetics
670 sg:ontologies/subjects/parasitology
671 sg:ontologies/subjects/pathogens
672 sg:ontologies/subjects/phage-biology
673 sg:ontologies/subjects/policy-and-public-health-in-microbiology
674 sg:ontologies/subjects/vaccines
675 sg:ontologies/subjects/virology
676 skos:prefLabel Microbiology
677 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-biology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
678 rdf:type npg:Subject
679 skos:Concept
680 rdfs:label Molecular biology
681 skos:altLabel Biochemical Genetic
682 Biochemical Genetics
683 Molecular Genetic
684 Molecular Genetics
685 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
686 skos:definition Molecular Biology is the field of biology that studies the composition, structure and interactions of cellular molecules – such as nucleic acids and proteins – that carry out the biological processes essential for the cell’s functions and maintenance.
687 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
688 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-division
689 sg:ontologies/subjects/chromatin
690 sg:ontologies/subjects/chromosomes
691 sg:ontologies/subjects/crispr-cas-systems
692 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-damage-and-repair
693 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-metabolism
694 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-recombination
695 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-replication
696 sg:ontologies/subjects/epigenetics
697 sg:ontologies/subjects/non-coding-rnas
698 sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-organization
699 sg:ontologies/subjects/post-translational-modifications
700 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-folding
701 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteolysis
702 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteomics
703 sg:ontologies/subjects/riboswitches
704 sg:ontologies/subjects/ribozymes
705 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-metabolism
706 sg:ontologies/subjects/rnai
707 sg:ontologies/subjects/single-molecule-biophysics
708 sg:ontologies/subjects/transcription
709 sg:ontologies/subjects/transcriptomics
710 sg:ontologies/subjects/translation
711 sg:ontologies/subjects/transposition
712 skos:prefLabel Molecular biology
713 sg:ontologies/subjects/neuroscience sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
714 rdf:type npg:Subject
715 skos:Concept
716 rdfs:label Neuroscience
717 skos:altLabel Neurosciences
718 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
719 skos:definition Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary science that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the nervous system. It encompasses the evolution, development, cellular and molecular biology, physiology, anatomy and pharmacology of the nervous system, as well as computational, behavioural and cognitive neuroscience.
720 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
721 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/auditory-system
722 sg:ontologies/subjects/blood-brain-barrier
723 sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-death-in-the-nervous-system
724 sg:ontologies/subjects/cellular-neuroscience
725 sg:ontologies/subjects/circadian-rhythms-and-sleep
726 sg:ontologies/subjects/cognitive-ageing
727 sg:ontologies/subjects/cognitive-neuroscience
728 sg:ontologies/subjects/computational-neuroscience
729 sg:ontologies/subjects/development-of-the-nervous-system
730 sg:ontologies/subjects/diseases-of-the-nervous-system
731 sg:ontologies/subjects/emotion
732 sg:ontologies/subjects/epigenetics-in-the-nervous-system
733 sg:ontologies/subjects/feeding-behaviour
734 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetics-of-the-nervous-system
735 sg:ontologies/subjects/glial-biology
736 sg:ontologies/subjects/gliogenesis
737 sg:ontologies/subjects/gustatory-system
738 sg:ontologies/subjects/ion-channels-in-the-nervous-system
739 sg:ontologies/subjects/learning-and-memory
740 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-neuroscience
741 sg:ontologies/subjects/motivation
742 sg:ontologies/subjects/motor-control
743 sg:ontologies/subjects/myelin-biology-and-repair
744 sg:ontologies/subjects/neural-ageing
745 sg:ontologies/subjects/neural-circuit
746 sg:ontologies/subjects/neuro-vascular-interactions
747 sg:ontologies/subjects/neurogenesis
748 sg:ontologies/subjects/neuroimmunology
749 sg:ontologies/subjects/neuronal-physiology
750 sg:ontologies/subjects/neurotrophic-factors
751 sg:ontologies/subjects/oculomotor-system
752 sg:ontologies/subjects/olfactory-system
753 sg:ontologies/subjects/peripheral-nervous-system
754 sg:ontologies/subjects/regeneration-and-repair-in-the-nervous-system
755 sg:ontologies/subjects/reward
756 sg:ontologies/subjects/sensorimotor-processing
757 sg:ontologies/subjects/sensory-processing
758 sg:ontologies/subjects/sexual-behaviour
759 sg:ontologies/subjects/social-behaviour
760 sg:ontologies/subjects/social-neuroscience
761 sg:ontologies/subjects/somatosensory-system
762 sg:ontologies/subjects/spine-regulation-and-structure
763 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cells-in-the-nervous-system
764 sg:ontologies/subjects/stress-and-resilience
765 sg:ontologies/subjects/synaptic-plasticity
766 sg:ontologies/subjects/synaptic-transmission
767 sg:ontologies/subjects/transporters-in-the-nervous-system
768 sg:ontologies/subjects/visual-system
769 skos:prefLabel Neuroscience
770 sg:ontologies/subjects/physiology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
771 rdf:type npg:Subject
772 skos:Concept
773 rdfs:label Physiology
774 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
775 skos:definition Physiology is the branch of the biological sciences that deals with the life-supporting functions and processes of living organisms or their parts. The study of physiology aims to understand how living things work, which can then aid the treatment of diseases.
776 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
777 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/ageing
778 sg:ontologies/subjects/bone
779 sg:ontologies/subjects/bone-quality-and-biomechanics
780 sg:ontologies/subjects/calcium-and-vitamin-d
781 sg:ontologies/subjects/cardiovascular-biology
782 sg:ontologies/subjects/circulation
783 sg:ontologies/subjects/kidney
784 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolism
785 sg:ontologies/subjects/neurophysiology
786 sg:ontologies/subjects/reproductive-biology
787 sg:ontologies/subjects/respiration
788 skos:prefLabel Physiology
789 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-sciences sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
790 rdf:type npg:Subject
791 skos:Concept
792 rdfs:label Plant sciences
793 skos:altLabel Botany
794 Plant biology
795 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
796 skos:definition Plant sciences is the study of plants in all their forms and interactions using a scientific approach.
797 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
798 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/biofuels
799 sg:ontologies/subjects/light-responses
800 sg:ontologies/subjects/natural-variation-in-plants
801 sg:ontologies/subjects/photosynthesis
802 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-biotechnology
803 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-breeding
804 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-cell-biology
805 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-development
806 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-domestication
807 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-ecology
808 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-evolution
809 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-genetics
810 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-hormones
811 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-immunity
812 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-molecular-biology
813 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-physiology
814 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-reproduction
815 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-signalling
816 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-stress-responses
817 sg:ontologies/subjects/plant-symbiosis
818 sg:ontologies/subjects/secondary-metabolism
819 sg:ontologies/subjects/stomata
820 sg:ontologies/subjects/tropism
821 skos:prefLabel Plant sciences
822 sg:ontologies/subjects/psychology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
823 rdf:type npg:Subject
824 skos:Concept
825 rdfs:label Psychology
826 skos:altLabel Psychological Factor
827 Psychological Factors
828 Psychological Side Effect
829 Psychological Side Effects
830 Psychologist
831 Psychologists
832 Psychosocial Factor
833 Psychosocial Factors
834 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
835 sg:ontologies/subjects/social-science
836 sg:ontologies/subjects/social-sciences
837 skos:definition Psychology is a scientific discipline that focuses on understanding mental functions and the behaviour of individuals and groups.
838 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
839 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/human-behaviour
840 skos:prefLabel Psychology
841 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cells sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
842 rdf:type npg:Subject
843 skos:Concept
844 rdfs:label Stem cells
845 skos:altLabel Colony Forming Unit
846 Colony Forming Units
847 Colony-Forming Unit
848 Colony-Forming Units
849 Mother Cell
850 Mother Cells
851 Progenitor Cell
852 Progenitor Cells
853 Stem Cell
854 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
855 sg:ontologies/subjects/developmental-biology
856 skos:definition Stem cells are cells that have the capacity to self-renew by dividing and to develop into more mature, specialised cells. Stem cells can be unipotent, multipotent, pluripotent or totipotent, depending on the number of cell types to which they can give rise.
857 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
858 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/adult-stem-cells
859 sg:ontologies/subjects/ageing
860 sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer-stem-cells
861 sg:ontologies/subjects/embryonic-germ-cells
862 sg:ontologies/subjects/embryonic-stem-cells
863 sg:ontologies/subjects/epigenetic-memory
864 sg:ontologies/subjects/haematopoietic-stem-cells
865 sg:ontologies/subjects/heart-stem-cells
866 sg:ontologies/subjects/intestinal-stem-cells
867 sg:ontologies/subjects/mammary-stem-cells
868 sg:ontologies/subjects/mesenchymal-stem-cells
869 sg:ontologies/subjects/multipotent-stem-cells
870 sg:ontologies/subjects/muscle-stem-cells
871 sg:ontologies/subjects/neural-stem-cells
872 sg:ontologies/subjects/pluripotent-stem-cells
873 sg:ontologies/subjects/quiescence
874 sg:ontologies/subjects/regeneration
875 sg:ontologies/subjects/reprogramming
876 sg:ontologies/subjects/self-renewal
877 sg:ontologies/subjects/skin-stem-cells
878 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cell-differentiation
879 sg:ontologies/subjects/stem-cell-niche
880 sg:ontologies/subjects/totipotent-stem-cells
881 sg:ontologies/subjects/transdifferentiation
882 skos:prefLabel Stem cells
883 sg:ontologies/subjects/structural-biology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
884 rdf:type npg:Subject
885 skos:Concept
886 rdfs:label Structural biology
887 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemistry
888 sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
889 skos:definition Structural biology is the study of the molecular structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, particularly proteins and nucleic acids, and how alterations in their structures affect their function. Structural biology incorporates the principles of molecular biology, biochemistry and biophysics.
890 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
891 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/atomic-force-microscopy
892 sg:ontologies/subjects/electron-microscopy
893 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-modelling
894 sg:ontologies/subjects/nmr-spectroscopy
895 sg:ontologies/subjects/saxs
896 sg:ontologies/subjects/x-ray-crystallography
897 skos:prefLabel Structural biology
898 sg:ontologies/subjects/systems-biology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
899 rdf:type npg:Subject
900 skos:Concept
901 rdfs:label Systems biology
902 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
903 skos:definition Systems biology is the study of biological systems whose behaviour cannot be reduced to the linear sum of their parts’ functions. Systems biology does not necessarily involve large numbers of components or vast datasets, as in genomics or connectomics, but often requires quantitative modelling methods borrowed from physics.
904 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
905 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/bayesian-inference
906 sg:ontologies/subjects/biobricks
907 sg:ontologies/subjects/biochemical-networks
908 sg:ontologies/subjects/bioenergetics
909 sg:ontologies/subjects/cellular-noise
910 sg:ontologies/subjects/complexity
911 sg:ontologies/subjects/computer-modelling
912 sg:ontologies/subjects/computer-science
913 sg:ontologies/subjects/control-theory
914 sg:ontologies/subjects/criticality
915 sg:ontologies/subjects/differential-equations
916 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-computing-and-cryptography
917 sg:ontologies/subjects/dynamic-networks
918 sg:ontologies/subjects/dynamical-systems
919 sg:ontologies/subjects/emergence
920 sg:ontologies/subjects/evolvability
921 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetic-circuit-engineering
922 sg:ontologies/subjects/genetic-interaction
923 sg:ontologies/subjects/genomic-engineering
924 sg:ontologies/subjects/information-theory
925 sg:ontologies/subjects/logic-gates
926 sg:ontologies/subjects/metabolic-engineering
927 sg:ontologies/subjects/modularity
928 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-engineering
929 sg:ontologies/subjects/molecular-fluctuations
930 sg:ontologies/subjects/multicellular-systems
931 sg:ontologies/subjects/multistability
932 sg:ontologies/subjects/nonlinear-dynamics
933 sg:ontologies/subjects/numerical-simulations
934 sg:ontologies/subjects/oscillators
935 sg:ontologies/subjects/population-dynamics
936 sg:ontologies/subjects/programming-language-and-code
937 sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-engineering
938 sg:ontologies/subjects/regulatory-networks
939 sg:ontologies/subjects/reverse-engineering
940 sg:ontologies/subjects/robustness
941 sg:ontologies/subjects/signal-processing
942 sg:ontologies/subjects/single-cell-imaging
943 sg:ontologies/subjects/software
944 sg:ontologies/subjects/standardization
945 sg:ontologies/subjects/stochastic-modelling
946 sg:ontologies/subjects/stochastic-networks
947 sg:ontologies/subjects/synthetic-biology
948 sg:ontologies/subjects/systems-analysis
949 sg:ontologies/subjects/time-series
950 skos:prefLabel Systems biology
951 sg:ontologies/subjects/zoology sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
952 rdf:type npg:Subject
953 skos:Concept
954 rdfs:label Zoology
955 skos:altLabel Animal biology
956 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/biological-sciences
957 skos:definition Zoology is the scientific study of animals. This discipline can include animal anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, genetics, evolution, ecology, behaviour and conservation.
958 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
959 skos:narrower sg:ontologies/subjects/animal-behaviour
960 sg:ontologies/subjects/animal-physiology
961 sg:ontologies/subjects/biomechanics
962 sg:ontologies/subjects/entomology
963 sg:ontologies/subjects/herpetology
964 sg:ontologies/subjects/ichthyology
965 skos:prefLabel Zoology
966 skos:Concept sgo:sdDataset for_codes
967 rdf:type rdfs:Class
968 rdfs:Resource
969 rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:Resource
970 skos:Concept
 




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