Colors and balms in antiquity from the chemistry studio to the knowledge of cosmetics, painting and medicine technologies. View Homepage


Ontology type: schema:MonetaryGrant     


Grant Info

YEARS

2007-2009

FUNDING AMOUNT

233000 EUR

ABSTRACT

The present project focuses mainly on the study and the chemical knowledge of natural organic substances that have previously been used as ingredients for cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and medical preparations and for the preparation of pictorial materials. The interest in such materials of historical-artistic and / or archaeological value goes far beyond their aesthetic value and is essentially aimed at their history, the historical-cultural-technological context in which they were created and the ways of employment. Based on the funding obtained, research will be directed to the development and implementation of analytical techniques for the characterization of organic materials found in association with ancient objects (up to the fifteenth century), their validation by reference materials, and the application Of these procedures to organic residues associated with finds of different epoch and origin such as ceramic and / or glass containers, tools, and pictorial artifacts. The purpose is to investigate and study the preparations used as herbal products and herbal products, ritual or cosmetic products, as antique painting and dyeing materials. Particular attention will be given to those materials which, under different technological processes, were present in products with a different function of use: for example, purple, organic dye extract from molluscs of the genus Murex could become a pigment for painting, Precious color dye, the ingredient of cosmetics. Material characterization provides the information needed to: - the knowledge and cataloging of the finds, their restoration and preservation, and the acquisition of useful information to reconstruct artistic and crafts techniques of the past societies that have produced them; - the acquisition of important parameters for identifying the origin of materials and the reconstruction of possible trade relations between populations and commercial routes; - to contribute to the organization of museum installations designed to exhibit and represent not only the historical artifacts as objects in it, but also to illustrate their use, the executive technique adopted to accomplish them, and the problems of degradation and Conservation that afflicts them, with the ability to highlight the changes that have taken place over time. In fact, in line with recent trends in museology (museums are increasingly transforming from "containers" of objects and artifacts with historical / artistic value to "presenters" of the social and cultural context in which objects were constructed or used) The knowledge derived from the chemical study of the artefacts will allow to deepen the history of the find and to "animate it" by inserting it into a technological / artisan context of preparation of the object and the materials that make it. Given the problems and intrinsic difficulties involved in the study of small quantities of complex mixtures of degraded organic materials, the fundamental objective of this project is the validation of the analytical methods used for the characterization of organic residues. The various participating operating units will contribute with different analytical methods that will be verified by replicating, "real" (referred to as antique objects) and reference samples, and participating in an interlaboratory exercise. This allows us to evaluate the reliability of the information provided by each procedure and to ensure the quality of the final data. The dissemination of this information is of primary importance and avoids the use of uncontrolled methods which, often yielding questionable and mystifying results, lead to a devaluation of the utilization of scientific-technical methods in the historical-archaeological field. Reliable analytical techniques, integrated into a single protocol for the characterization of organic material present in archeological / historical / artistic artefacts, are certainly one of the most important results expected of the project participants. Statistical analysis with multivariate data collection methods, and database building that make it easy to use the data obtained by integrating them with the available historical-archaeological notions, will be additional tools for achieving the goals, which can be summarized as follows: - preparation of reference samples based on ancient and representative recipes of classes of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and pictorial materials with particular attention to organic dyes derived from plant and animal extracts; - Aging of reference samples through accelerated aging protocols agreed between the units and based on controlled humidity temperature changes, photo oxidation and enzymatic degradation; - validation of analytical procedures based on spectroscopy, chromatography and mass spectrometry using reference samples. The "fresh" Will allow to validate the analytical procedures that each unit has, the aged ones will allow to highlight the degradation kinetics and evaluate the presence of aging markers; - setting up an interlaboratory exercise also at international level with the use of reference materials prepared and analyzed by the various operating units; - definition of the analytical protocol that integrates different techniques to characterize organic materials in complex matrices; - Characterization of the archaeological / historical / artistic archaeological finds provided by Archaeological Superintendencies, including of particular interest from the historical sites of Ercolano and Pompeii, an area that in Roman times specialized in the production of cosmetic, balsamic and medicinal essences from Egyptian Museum of Turin, the National Museum of Naples, the Aboca Museum of San Sepolcro, the Museum of St. Agostino of Genoa, the Museum of Palazzo Poggi in Bologna, - creation of a database for museum purposes for each analyzed object of a tab containing not only data strictly Archaeological / artistic / historical, but also the chemical-physical data useful for reconstructing the history of the object (use, function, reuse) and its contents. More... »

URL

http://cercauniversita.cineca.it/php5/prin/cerca.php?codice=2007AKK9LX

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