Genome organization in the naturaly transgenic Linaria and Nicotiana plants View Homepage


Ontology type: schema:MonetaryGrant     


Grant Info

YEARS

2016-2018

FUNDING AMOUNT

N/A

ABSTRACT

Most genetic engineering of plants uses Agrobacterium mediated transformation to introduce novel gene content. In nature, insertion of T-DNA in the plant genome and its subsequent transfer via sexual reproduction has been shown in several species in the genera Nicotiana, Ipomea and Linaria. They are called naturally transgenic plant. A sequence homologous to the T-DNA of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes was found in the genome of untransformed Nicotiana glauca about 30 years ago, and was named “cellular T-DNA” (cT-DNA). A similar cT-DNA has also been found in other species of the genus Nicotiana . These presumably ancient homologs of T-DNA genes are still expressed, indicating that they may play a role in the evolution of these plants. Recently T-DNA has been detected and characterized in genera Linaria and Ipomea. Application of next generation sequencing methodology have shown, that several tobacco species were transformed more than once during their evolution. The other tobacco species are non-transgenic. In case of Linaria the situation is unclear.We propose that ancient plants transformed by A. Rhizogenes might have acquired a selective advantage in competition with the parental species. Thus, the events of T-DNA insertion in the plant genome might have affected their evolution, resulting in the creation of new plant species. Since they are exist in ecosystems for millions of years, they could be good model system for study of delayed environmental risks of GMO. Summarizing the environmental risks of transgenic plants, mentioned in literature, we can conclude that the most significant concerns are: 1) the spread of transgenes through GM pollen diffusion and its environmental impact after hybridisation with closely related wild species or subspecies; 2) horizontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to soil microbes; 3) the impact of insecticide proteins released into the soil by transformed plants on non-target microbial soil communities; 4) the risks of repeated horizontal gene transfer to transgenic plants. The research objectives of this proposal will focus on gene transfers in nature, more specifically, plants, building on the foundational discoveries of Matveeva et al (2012), namely, the recent transfers, in evolutionary terms, of bacterial DNA gene to plants, specifically, within the genus Linaria . Besides, Nicotiana glauca genome will be also investigated, ince it is not sequenced yet, but there are a lot of data concernin presence of T-DNA in it. The training aspects will involve the application and assessment of new approaches of high throughput (NextGen) genomic sequencing analyses, and gene expression analysis. We will determine, how many agrobacterial T-DNA insertions are in Linaria vulgaris and Nicotiana glauca genomes, characterize each insertion in terms of amount of genes, their functionality, then we will perform expression analysis of plant genes regulated by functional agrobacterian oncogenes. By now at least one potentially funcional gene (Lv rolC) is found in Linaria species. The same gene is the most conserved in tobacco. It is planned to examine the relationship of expression rolC in Linaria and Nicotiana with increased formation of reactive oxygen species ROS and secondary metabolites. It should be noted that many secondary metabolites are an integral part of the innate immunity constitutive activating enzymes in response to injury, and thus providing a certain level of protection of plants, leading as a result to increase protective and adaptive capacity of plants. These studies are being conducted for the first time 1 More... »

URL

http://www.rscf.ru/en/enprjcard?rid=16-16-10010

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