Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation (CLSF) View Homepage


Ontology type: schema:MonetaryGrant     


Grant Info

YEARS

2009-2022

FUNDING AMOUNT

35720000 USD

ABSTRACT

Public Abstract: The Center forLignocellulose Structure and Formation (CLSF)Director: DanielJ. CosgroveLead Institution: Penn State UniversityPlant cell walls - also known as cellulosic biomass or lignocellulose - are among the most complex and diverse materials on Earth. These hierarchical structures represent an abundant and renewable source of valuable biomaterials and bioenergy, presenting untapped transformative opportunities for engineering them for new purposes while simultaneously providing lessons on how to mimic these complex living materials with specific, tunable properties. CLSF’s mission is to develop a detailed nano- to meso-scale understanding of plant cell walls, from cellulose microfibril formation to the assembly of microfibrils with other cell wall components to form versatile plant cell walls. This research - at the nexus of physics, chemistry and biology - will form the foundation for future efforts to optimize the structures and utility of plant cell walls, which are essential to plant life and comprise a large-scale source of renewable biomaterials and bioenergy.The new CLSF goals build upon notable advances made in the current funding period and include:1. Combine multiple state-of-the-art methods of electron microscopy with neutron and X-ray scattering, computational modeling and biochemistry to solve the structure and catalytic mechanism of plant cellulose synthases (CesAs) and native cellulose synthesis complexes (CSCs). 2. Manipulate active CesA assemblies in vitro and in vivo to learn how artificial and native CSCs are assembled and how cellulose microfibril structure depends on CSC structure. Use these new experimental platforms to test computational models of CSC and cellulose microfibril assembly. 3. Develop new experimental and quantitative methods for assessing cellulose microfibril organization in cell walls and use them to uncover the physical mechanism(s) of microfibril bundling.4. Extend newly-developed CLSF methods and results to analyze the physical basis of microfibril-matrix interactions in dicot and grass cell walls and study the structural, physical and mechanical consequences of altering these interactions in primary and secondary cell walls.5. Develop new biological systems (e.g., the developing Arabidopsis inflorescence stem and xylem-transdifferentiation in transgenic seedlings) to study the processes of microfibril bundling, primary cell wall assembly and maturation, and in secondary cell wall formation.These goals involve new teaming arrangements and will require the development of novel approaches, experimental platforms and advanced instrumentation. Through complementarity, the five goals will synergistically produce key insights for potential ways to achieve analogous control of other materials and for ways to tune cell wall assembly for specific properties in the materials and energy fields. Overall success with even a subset of these goals will enable a quantum leap in understanding how plants assemble these complex hierarchical structures. More... »

URL

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