The source and longevity of sulphur in an Icelandic flood basalt eruption plume View Homepage


Ontology type: schema:MonetaryGrant     


Grant Info

YEARS

2014-2015

FUNDING AMOUNT

51254 GBP

ABSTRACT

For the first time in the modern age we have the opportunity to study at first hand the environmental impact of a flood basalt (>1 km3 fissure eruption). Flood basalt eruptions are one of the most hazardous volcanic scenarios in Iceland and have had enormous societal and economic consequences across the northern hemisphere. A flood basalt eruption was included in the UK National Risk Register in 2012 as one of the highest priority risks. The Holuhraun eruption reached the flood basalt size sometime after 20 October 2014. It is now the largest flood basalt in Iceland since the Laki eruption in 1783-84, which caused the deaths of >20% of the Icelandic population by environmental pollution and famine and likely increased European levels of mortality through air pollution by sulfur-bearing gas and aerosol. The pollution from Holuhraun has been intensifying over the last few weeks, reaching a "Dangerous" level for the first time in Iceland on 26 October (as defined by the World Health Organisation). During 18-22 September, SO2 fluxes reached 45 kt/day, a rate of outgassing rarely observed during sustained eruptions, suggesting that the sulfur loading per kg of erupted magma (we estimate >0.35 wt%) exceeds both that of other recent eruptions in Iceland and perhaps also other historic basaltic eruptions globally, raising questions regarding the origin of these prodigious quantities of sulfur. A lack of data concerning conversion rates of SO2 gas into aerosol, the residence times of aerosol in the plume and the dependence of these on meteorological factors is limiting our confidence in the ability of atmospheric models to forecast gas and aerosol concentrations in the near- and far-field from Icelandic flood basalt eruptions. Preliminary study of the erupted products highlights two extraordinary features: (1) matrix glasses contain up to 1000 ppm sulfur (<100 ppm is expected for degassed melt) and are extremely heterogeneous and (2) abundant sulfide liquid globules in the matrix glass are "caught in the act" of breaking down on quenching, suggesting that sulfur is not only supplied by the melt, but also by the breakdown of sulfide liquid during degassing. These observations highlight a previously overlooked but potentially very large reservoir of sulfur that leaves little petrological record. These results might go some way towards understanding the extremely high sulfur yield of this eruption and have implications for assessing the environmental impact. This project combines the expertise of a large group of researchers to understand better the sulfur and chalcophile metal budget of the Holuhraun eruption. We will follow the formation of sulfide liquids, through to their breakdown on degassing, to the outgassing of SO2 gas and conversion to aerosol. The entire pathway is not well understood, particularly given complexities related to the rapid magma ascent rates postulated for the Holuhraun magmas and the lack of ash in the plume, both of which we hypothesise impose kinetic constraints on sulfur processing in different parts of the system. We will carry out detailed petrological, geochemical measurements of lavas and plume chemistry to understand the sulfur budget and to feed into models of plume chemistry and dispersion, which are essential for hazard monitoring. More... »

URL

http://gtr.rcuk.ac.uk/project/03D7984C-7B3D-40C0-A8A1-79E6AF84172F

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/2204", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "amount": {
      "currency": "GBP", 
      "type": "MonetaryAmount", 
      "value": "51254"
    }, 
    "description": "For the first time in the modern age we have the opportunity to study at first hand the environmental impact of a flood basalt (>1 km3 fissure eruption). Flood basalt eruptions are one of the most hazardous volcanic scenarios in Iceland and have had enormous societal and economic consequences across the northern hemisphere. A flood basalt eruption was included in the UK National Risk Register in 2012 as one of the highest priority risks. \n\nThe Holuhraun eruption reached the flood basalt size sometime after 20 October 2014. It is now the largest flood basalt in Iceland since the Laki eruption in 1783-84, which caused the deaths of >20% of the Icelandic population by environmental pollution and famine and likely increased European levels of mortality through air pollution by sulfur-bearing gas and aerosol. The pollution from Holuhraun has been intensifying over the last few weeks, reaching a \"Dangerous\" level for the first time in Iceland on 26 October (as defined by the World Health Organisation). During 18-22 September, SO2 fluxes reached 45 kt/day, a rate of outgassing rarely observed during sustained eruptions, suggesting that the sulfur loading per kg of erupted magma (we estimate >0.35 wt%) exceeds both that of other recent eruptions in Iceland and perhaps also other historic basaltic eruptions globally, raising questions regarding the origin of these prodigious quantities of sulfur. A lack of data concerning conversion rates of SO2 gas into aerosol, the residence times of aerosol in the plume and the dependence of these on meteorological factors is limiting our confidence in the ability of atmospheric models to forecast gas and aerosol concentrations in the near- and far-field from Icelandic flood basalt eruptions. \n\nPreliminary study of the erupted products highlights two extraordinary features: (1) matrix glasses contain up to 1000 ppm sulfur (<100 ppm is expected for degassed melt) and are extremely heterogeneous and (2) abundant sulfide liquid globules in the matrix glass are \"caught in the act\" of breaking down on quenching, suggesting that sulfur is not only supplied by the melt, but also by the breakdown of sulfide liquid during degassing. These observations highlight a previously overlooked but potentially very large reservoir of sulfur that leaves little petrological record. These results might go some way towards understanding the extremely high sulfur yield of this eruption and have implications for assessing the environmental impact.\n\nThis project combines the expertise of a large group of researchers to understand better the sulfur and chalcophile metal budget of the Holuhraun eruption. We will follow the formation of sulfide liquids, through to their breakdown on degassing, to the outgassing of SO2 gas and conversion to aerosol. The entire pathway is not well understood, particularly given complexities related to the rapid magma ascent rates postulated for the Holuhraun magmas and the lack of ash in the plume, both of which we hypothesise impose kinetic constraints on sulfur processing in different parts of the system. We will carry out detailed petrological, geochemical measurements of lavas and plume chemistry to understand the sulfur budget and to feed into models of plume chemistry and dispersion, which are essential for hazard monitoring.", 
    "endDate": "2015-12-17T00:00:00Z", 
    "funder": {
      "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8682.4", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "id": "sg:grant.3956890", 
    "identifier": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "3956890"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "gtr_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "03D7984C-7B3D-40C0-A8A1-79E6AF84172F"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "plume chemistry", 
      "air pollution", 
      "field", 
      "large group", 
      "sustained eruptions", 
      "source", 
      "September", 
      "Holuhraun", 
      "Holuhraun eruption", 
      "sulfide liquid", 
      "other recent eruptions", 
      "researchers", 
      "complexity", 
      "flood basalt eruptions", 
      "large flood basalts", 
      "dispersion", 
      "sulfur processing", 
      "gas", 
      "sulfur", 
      "expertise", 
      "European level", 
      "Icelandic flood basalt eruptions", 
      "last few weeks", 
      "chalcophile metal budget", 
      "observations", 
      "eruption", 
      "dependence", 
      "environmental pollution", 
      "pollution", 
      "first time", 
      "meteorological factors", 
      "ash", 
      "levels", 
      "prodigious quantities", 
      "flood basalts", 
      "confidence", 
      "matrix glass", 
      "formation", 
      "model", 
      "outgassing", 
      "high sulphur yield", 
      "famine", 
      "death", 
      "near-", 
      "large reservoir", 
      "Icelandic population", 
      "first hand", 
      "October 2014", 
      "kt/day", 
      "fissure eruptions", 
      "Laki eruption", 
      "other historic basaltic eruptions", 
      "plume", 
      "data", 
      "results", 
      "atmospheric models", 
      "rapid magma ascent rates", 
      "different parts", 
      "lavas", 
      "degassing", 
      "economic consequences", 
      "preliminary study", 
      "project", 
      "melt", 
      "geochemical measurements", 
      "October", 
      "hazard monitoring", 
      "act", 
      "system", 
      "flood basalt size", 
      "quenching", 
      "Northern Hemisphere", 
      "high priority risks", 
      "extraordinary features", 
      "ability", 
      "sulfur budget", 
      "little petrological record", 
      "aerosol concentrations", 
      "environmental impact", 
      "opportunity", 
      "rate", 
      "Iceland", 
      "Icelandic flood basalt eruption plume", 
      "lack", 
      "erupted products", 
      "implications", 
      "conversion rate", 
      "question", 
      "origin", 
      "modern age", 
      "residence time", 
      "Holuhraun magmas", 
      "way", 
      "hazardous volcanic scenarios", 
      "ppm", 
      "SO2 gas", 
      "longevity", 
      "abundant sulfide liquid globules", 
      "breakdown", 
      "kinetic constraints", 
      "SO2 flux", 
      "ppm sulfur", 
      "entire pathway", 
      "mortality", 
      "UK National Risk Register", 
      "kg", 
      "World Health Organization", 
      "aerosols", 
      "conversion"
    ], 
    "name": "The source and longevity of sulphur in an Icelandic flood basalt eruption plume", 
    "recipient": [
      {
        "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.474329.f", 
        "type": "Organization"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.474329.f", 
          "name": "NERC British Geological Survey", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Loughlin", 
        "givenName": "Susan", 
        "id": "sg:person.0770314650.84", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "member": "sg:person.0770314650.84", 
        "roleName": "PI", 
        "type": "Role"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
          "name": "University of Cambridge", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Edmonds", 
        "givenName": "Marie", 
        "id": "sg:person.01170753060.13", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "member": "sg:person.01170753060.13", 
        "roleName": "Co-PI", 
        "type": "Role"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
          "name": "University of Cambridge", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Schmidt", 
        "givenName": "Anja", 
        "id": "sg:person.0730713550.50", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "member": "sg:person.0730713550.50", 
        "roleName": "Co-PI", 
        "type": "Role"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
          "name": "University of Cambridge", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Oppenheimer", 
        "givenName": "Clive", 
        "id": "sg:person.0641051630.90", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "member": "sg:person.0641051630.90", 
        "roleName": "Co-PI", 
        "type": "Role"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
          "name": "University of Cambridge", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Maclennan", 
        "givenName": "John", 
        "id": "sg:person.01122637660.33", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "member": "sg:person.01122637660.33", 
        "roleName": "Co-PI", 
        "type": "Role"
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/grant/grant.3956890"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "grants", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-03-07T11:31", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com.uberresearch.data.processor/core_data/20181219_192338/projects/base/gtr_projects.xml.gz", 
    "startDate": "2014-12-18T00:00:00Z", 
    "type": "MonetaryGrant", 
    "url": "http://gtr.rcuk.ac.uk/project/03D7984C-7B3D-40C0-A8A1-79E6AF84172F"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/grant.3956890'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/grant.3956890'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/grant.3956890'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/grant.3956890'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

191 TRIPLES      19 PREDICATES      139 URIs      127 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:grant.3956890 schema:about anzsrc-for:2204
2 schema:amount N36b6307031794b9596974cade9a3b1de
3 schema:description For the first time in the modern age we have the opportunity to study at first hand the environmental impact of a flood basalt (>1 km3 fissure eruption). Flood basalt eruptions are one of the most hazardous volcanic scenarios in Iceland and have had enormous societal and economic consequences across the northern hemisphere. A flood basalt eruption was included in the UK National Risk Register in 2012 as one of the highest priority risks. The Holuhraun eruption reached the flood basalt size sometime after 20 October 2014. It is now the largest flood basalt in Iceland since the Laki eruption in 1783-84, which caused the deaths of >20% of the Icelandic population by environmental pollution and famine and likely increased European levels of mortality through air pollution by sulfur-bearing gas and aerosol. The pollution from Holuhraun has been intensifying over the last few weeks, reaching a "Dangerous" level for the first time in Iceland on 26 October (as defined by the World Health Organisation). During 18-22 September, SO2 fluxes reached 45 kt/day, a rate of outgassing rarely observed during sustained eruptions, suggesting that the sulfur loading per kg of erupted magma (we estimate >0.35 wt%) exceeds both that of other recent eruptions in Iceland and perhaps also other historic basaltic eruptions globally, raising questions regarding the origin of these prodigious quantities of sulfur. A lack of data concerning conversion rates of SO2 gas into aerosol, the residence times of aerosol in the plume and the dependence of these on meteorological factors is limiting our confidence in the ability of atmospheric models to forecast gas and aerosol concentrations in the near- and far-field from Icelandic flood basalt eruptions. Preliminary study of the erupted products highlights two extraordinary features: (1) matrix glasses contain up to 1000 ppm sulfur (<100 ppm is expected for degassed melt) and are extremely heterogeneous and (2) abundant sulfide liquid globules in the matrix glass are "caught in the act" of breaking down on quenching, suggesting that sulfur is not only supplied by the melt, but also by the breakdown of sulfide liquid during degassing. These observations highlight a previously overlooked but potentially very large reservoir of sulfur that leaves little petrological record. These results might go some way towards understanding the extremely high sulfur yield of this eruption and have implications for assessing the environmental impact. This project combines the expertise of a large group of researchers to understand better the sulfur and chalcophile metal budget of the Holuhraun eruption. We will follow the formation of sulfide liquids, through to their breakdown on degassing, to the outgassing of SO2 gas and conversion to aerosol. The entire pathway is not well understood, particularly given complexities related to the rapid magma ascent rates postulated for the Holuhraun magmas and the lack of ash in the plume, both of which we hypothesise impose kinetic constraints on sulfur processing in different parts of the system. We will carry out detailed petrological, geochemical measurements of lavas and plume chemistry to understand the sulfur budget and to feed into models of plume chemistry and dispersion, which are essential for hazard monitoring.
4 schema:endDate 2015-12-17T00:00:00Z
5 schema:funder https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8682.4
6 schema:identifier N2ecf8c6e43cb4e4a8f00b98e6ec4eb33
7 N7c096408e75d48e189dec39343be2f7e
8 schema:inLanguage en
9 schema:keywords European level
10 Holuhraun
11 Holuhraun eruption
12 Holuhraun magmas
13 Iceland
14 Icelandic flood basalt eruption plume
15 Icelandic flood basalt eruptions
16 Icelandic population
17 Laki eruption
18 Northern Hemisphere
19 October
20 October 2014
21 SO2 flux
22 SO2 gas
23 September
24 UK National Risk Register
25 World Health Organization
26 ability
27 abundant sulfide liquid globules
28 act
29 aerosol concentrations
30 aerosols
31 air pollution
32 ash
33 atmospheric models
34 breakdown
35 chalcophile metal budget
36 complexity
37 confidence
38 conversion
39 conversion rate
40 data
41 death
42 degassing
43 dependence
44 different parts
45 dispersion
46 economic consequences
47 entire pathway
48 environmental impact
49 environmental pollution
50 erupted products
51 eruption
52 expertise
53 extraordinary features
54 famine
55 field
56 first hand
57 first time
58 fissure eruptions
59 flood basalt eruptions
60 flood basalt size
61 flood basalts
62 formation
63 gas
64 geochemical measurements
65 hazard monitoring
66 hazardous volcanic scenarios
67 high priority risks
68 high sulphur yield
69 implications
70 kg
71 kinetic constraints
72 kt/day
73 lack
74 large flood basalts
75 large group
76 large reservoir
77 last few weeks
78 lavas
79 levels
80 little petrological record
81 longevity
82 matrix glass
83 melt
84 meteorological factors
85 model
86 modern age
87 mortality
88 near-
89 observations
90 opportunity
91 origin
92 other historic basaltic eruptions
93 other recent eruptions
94 outgassing
95 plume
96 plume chemistry
97 pollution
98 ppm
99 ppm sulfur
100 preliminary study
101 prodigious quantities
102 project
103 quenching
104 question
105 rapid magma ascent rates
106 rate
107 researchers
108 residence time
109 results
110 source
111 sulfide liquid
112 sulfur
113 sulfur budget
114 sulfur processing
115 sustained eruptions
116 system
117 way
118 schema:name The source and longevity of sulphur in an Icelandic flood basalt eruption plume
119 schema:recipient N40221ce0379f4273a5c065c280a623c4
120 N5b767b13a2b84537a7d549522df32915
121 N84939a2d4bce4a258f52801637b79541
122 Na3844372c3144c9cb4a41f1a7cd0e1e4
123 Ncbedbe1e3d9e4eff897ef4ce6ee5bcb7
124 sg:person.01122637660.33
125 sg:person.01170753060.13
126 sg:person.0641051630.90
127 sg:person.0730713550.50
128 sg:person.0770314650.84
129 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.474329.f
130 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/grant/grant.3956890
131 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-03-07T11:31
132 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
133 schema:sdPublisher N6c98f832b99845c98e633913e9ffef7f
134 schema:startDate 2014-12-18T00:00:00Z
135 schema:url http://gtr.rcuk.ac.uk/project/03D7984C-7B3D-40C0-A8A1-79E6AF84172F
136 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
137 sgo:sdDataset grants
138 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
139 N2ecf8c6e43cb4e4a8f00b98e6ec4eb33 schema:name gtr_id
140 schema:value 03D7984C-7B3D-40C0-A8A1-79E6AF84172F
141 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
142 N36b6307031794b9596974cade9a3b1de schema:currency GBP
143 schema:value 51254
144 rdf:type schema:MonetaryAmount
145 N40221ce0379f4273a5c065c280a623c4 schema:member sg:person.01122637660.33
146 schema:roleName Co-PI
147 rdf:type schema:Role
148 N5b767b13a2b84537a7d549522df32915 schema:member sg:person.0730713550.50
149 schema:roleName Co-PI
150 rdf:type schema:Role
151 N6c98f832b99845c98e633913e9ffef7f schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
152 rdf:type schema:Organization
153 N7c096408e75d48e189dec39343be2f7e schema:name dimensions_id
154 schema:value 3956890
155 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
156 N84939a2d4bce4a258f52801637b79541 schema:member sg:person.0641051630.90
157 schema:roleName Co-PI
158 rdf:type schema:Role
159 Na3844372c3144c9cb4a41f1a7cd0e1e4 schema:member sg:person.01170753060.13
160 schema:roleName Co-PI
161 rdf:type schema:Role
162 Ncbedbe1e3d9e4eff897ef4ce6ee5bcb7 schema:member sg:person.0770314650.84
163 schema:roleName PI
164 rdf:type schema:Role
165 anzsrc-for:2204 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
166 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
167 sg:person.01122637660.33 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0
168 schema:familyName Maclennan
169 schema:givenName John
170 rdf:type schema:Person
171 sg:person.01170753060.13 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0
172 schema:familyName Edmonds
173 schema:givenName Marie
174 rdf:type schema:Person
175 sg:person.0641051630.90 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0
176 schema:familyName Oppenheimer
177 schema:givenName Clive
178 rdf:type schema:Person
179 sg:person.0730713550.50 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0
180 schema:familyName Schmidt
181 schema:givenName Anja
182 rdf:type schema:Person
183 sg:person.0770314650.84 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.474329.f
184 schema:familyName Loughlin
185 schema:givenName Susan
186 rdf:type schema:Person
187 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.474329.f schema:name NERC British Geological Survey
188 rdf:type schema:Organization
189 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0 schema:name University of Cambridge
190 rdf:type schema:Organization
191 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8682.4 schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...