They died in the Great Irish Famine. Biocultural and palaeopathological study of mass burials from Kilkenny Union Workhouse


Ontology type: schema:MonetaryGrant     


Grant Info

YEARS

2011-2012

FUNDING AMOUNT

2895 GBP

ABSTRACT

The aim of the research is primarily to explore the human experience of the Great Irish Famine, through an osteoarchaeological and palaeopathological perspective within a multidisciplinary approach, and will yield new information pertaining to this massive national and social ca1astrophe in the relatively recent history of Ireland. The research will focus around three themes: Theme 1 - The biocultural aspect on the skele1al remains from a mid-nineteenth century Irish population. This theme will constitute the main body of the research. The uniqueness of the Kilkenny workhouse assemblage is mainly represented by the relatively large number of individuals that are contemporary with each other. This offers an opportunity to study the demographic structure of a skele1al assemblage which can to a certain degree be considered to be a valid representation of the living population, in this case at the workhouse in Kilkenny during the Famine years. Since all skeletons are from a single short event in history, an osteobiographic analysis can be conducted on the entire population to show differences in health and occupational stress markers. Skele1al differences noted in categories such as age and sex can form the basis for a discussion of the social history of this population. For instance, interpersonal and domestic violence can be interpreted from bone fractures and other lesions. Dentitions of older children to young adults that display clay-pipe facets might, for example, reveal the social definition of adulthood. Theme 2 - The stresses of the Famine as illustrated by mortality, deprivation and poor health amongst the workhouse inmate population. How did the stress of the Famine affect the living conditions in the workhouse and is social stratification visible in the health of the paupers? A number of diseases associated with the Famine in Kilkenny and elsewhere in Ireland are known from historical records (Crawford 1988; Hughes 2007; MacArthur 1956; Patterson 1997). Although many of these will not be visible in skeletal remains (measles, scarlatina, dysentery, typhus), others are potentially detectable as bone reactions (protein energy malnutrition, scurvy, tuberculosis, smallpox). Using macroscopically and radiological methods, a detailed palaeopathological analysis will direct the focus to the health of a workhouse population which did not survive the Famine; a social stratum of nineteenth century Ireland which has not been studied to such a de1ailed degree previously. There will also be an intention to combine the palaeopathological analysis with the contemporary medical knowledge of diseases associated with modem famines to discover whether there might have been additional ailments to the Irish population than the diseases that were recorded at that time. By comparing the result of the palaeopalhological analysis with modem contemporary medical research, it should be possible to determine which diseases that were directly associated with the Famine and which were more likely to have been due to poverty and poor living conditions (see Revai 2007). Since more or less all skeletons are virtually intact, it is anticipated that by using statistical methods, the true aetiology of some of the pathologies which has been recorded in these skeletons will be revealed (e.g. endocranial lesions, sphenoid porosity and various unspecific bone infections). In addition, a discussion of the skeletons in analogy with pre- and post-Famine skele1al assemblages in Ireland and elsewhere, as well as with historically recorded demographic data,has the potential of revealing information about the longstanding effectS of the Famine on the Irish population (see Boyle & 6 Grilda 1986, Galler & Barrett 2001). For instance, signifiCant stature reductions have been noted in child survivors of twentieth century famines (Kozlov & Samsonova 2005), and the initial osteological assessment this population has suggested that most children in the Kilkenny workhouse mass burials are stunted in growth. Theme 3- The management of the Famine crisis by the Kilkenny workhouse as indicated from the archaeological record in combination with osteoarchaeological analysis and archival records and other sources such as folklore and art. A discussion on the mid-nineteenth century medical knowledge and how this is possibly visible in the skeletal remains would be very interesting, for example, evidence of medical treatment has been noted in the skeletal material with the presence of limb amputations in both adults and non-adults. The uneven numbers of skeletons within the mass-burial pits reveal that some of the pits were dug in advance; indicating that mass death within the workhouse was constantly expected. Some pits were completely filled with coffins, others were left half empty while one was never filled, probably representing the last phase of the mass deaths. A combination of data has the potential of recreating the logistic pressure put on the workhouse during the most critical years of the Famine. Another aspect on the reality of deaths in the workhouse is also the presence of anatomical dissections which can be proved from the skeletal remains, and further research into archival studies will shed additional light on this practise and how common it might have been in Kilkenny during the Famine years. More... »

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A number of diseases associated with the Famine in Kilkenny and elsewhere in Ireland are known from historical records (Crawford 1988; Hughes 2007; MacArthur 1956; Patterson 1997). Although many of these will not be visible in skeletal remains (measles, scarlatina, dysentery, typhus), others are potentially detectable as bone reactions (protein energy malnutrition, scurvy, tuberculosis, smallpox). Using macroscopically and radiological methods, a detailed palaeopathological analysis will direct the focus to the health of a workhouse population which did not survive the Famine; a social stratum of nineteenth century Ireland which has not been studied to such a de1ailed degree previously. There will also be an intention to combine the palaeopathological analysis with the contemporary medical knowledge of diseases associated with modem famines to discover whether there might have been additional ailments to the Irish population than the diseases that were recorded at that time. 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