Antiviral immunity View Homepage


Ontology type: schema:MonetaryGrant     


Grant Info

YEARS

2005-2015

FUNDING AMOUNT

4415364 GBP

ABSTRACT

Viral infections represent a major challenge to the immune system. Many viruses cause acute infections in humans, which can be rapidly fatal within days (e.g. influenza A and smallpox viruses). In contrast, many other viruses are able to persist chronically in infected individuals, despite the induction of an immune response (e.g. HIV, HTLV and hepatitis and herpes viruses) and generally the vast majority of individuals are chronically infected by at least one virus. These viruses can also be fatal, but typically after a prolonged incubation period, which can last up to several decades. Our aim is to better understand basic aspects of viral disease pathogenesis, the viral and host characteristics that determine viral persistence and clinical outcome and the quality of the immune response that can afford immune protection against viral infection. The main emphasis is placed on chronic viral infections and, in particular, retroviral infections. Current studies in appropriate mouse models address the mechanisms, by which the composition and timing of cell-mediated and antibody-mediated host immune response is regulated, the mechanisms responsible for what we call immunological memory, and lastly their practical consequences for the design of preventive and therapeutic vaccination strategies, able to induce long-term protective immunity against retroviral infection. In addition, current research concentrates on the protective or pathological immune response to influenza A infection. Technical Summary Vaccines against many chronic viral infections are still lacking. In these cases, natural infection does not elicit an immune response strong enough to clear the infection and, therefore, vaccination should aim to induce a quantitatively and/or qualitatively better response. This has not been achieved to date and further research into the basic aspects of immune-mediated protection and immunological memory is needed. Furthermore, protection against most persistent viruses relies primarily, or in addition to neutralising antibodies, on cell-mediated immunity. Thus, a better understanding of the protective value and the induction and maintenance of a protective T cell response in chronic viral infection will be essential for the development of effective vaccines. The aim of our research programme is two-fold: firstly, to gain a better understanding of the basic aspects of viral disease pathogenesis, the viral and host characteristics that determine viral persistence and clinical outcome and the correlates of a protective immune response, and secondly, to use this knowledge in the design of preventive and therapeutic vaccination strategies, able to induce or enhance long-term protective immunity against viral infection. Central to our approach is the use of appropriate animal models for infection with the relevant viral pathogens. Our experimental system of choice is the mouse as its haematopoietic system has been extensively studied and in addition to the accumulated knowledge there exists a vast array of reagents and genetic manipulation methodologies that facilitate the studies to a level unknown for many other organisms. Furthermore, its physiology and response to infection bear extensive similarities to the human, thus making the findings more relevant in terms of usefulness. To maintain the delicate evolutionary balance between viruses and their hosts in our studies, we have employed the murine leukaemia virus (MLV), a natural mouse virus, as the model pathogen. Murine leukaemia viruses are retroviruses which cause chronic infection in susceptible strains on mice, and may induce diverse outcomes, such as leukaemia, immune suppression and immunodeficiency, depending on the mouse and virus strain employed. In addition, our current research also involves the study of acute, cytopathic viral infections, such as influenza A infection, for which human influenza A viruses are used. These experimental systems are instrumental both in dissecting the basic mechanisms of viral disease and immune protection, as well as in investigating the efficacy of novel vaccination strategies in a pre-clinical setting. More... »

URL

http://gtr.rcuk.ac.uk/project/70EC902D-A7B8-4891-8016-37200CC405DB

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/2211", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/2211", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/2211", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "amount": {
      "currency": "GBP", 
      "type": "MonetaryAmount", 
      "value": "4415364"
    }, 
    "description": "Viral infections represent a major challenge to the immune system. Many viruses cause acute infections in humans, which can be rapidly fatal within days (e.g. influenza A and smallpox viruses). In contrast, many other viruses are able to persist chronically in infected individuals, despite the induction of an immune response (e.g. HIV, HTLV and hepatitis and herpes viruses) and generally the vast majority of individuals are chronically infected by at least one virus. These viruses can also be fatal, but typically after a prolonged incubation period, which can last up to several decades. Our aim is to better understand basic aspects of viral disease pathogenesis, the viral and host characteristics that determine viral persistence and clinical outcome and the quality of the immune response that can afford immune protection against viral infection. The main emphasis is placed on chronic viral infections and, in particular, retroviral infections. Current studies in appropriate mouse models address the mechanisms, by which the composition and timing of cell-mediated and antibody-mediated host immune response is regulated, the mechanisms responsible for what we call immunological memory, and lastly their practical consequences for the design of preventive and therapeutic vaccination strategies, able to induce long-term protective immunity against retroviral infection. In addition, current research concentrates on the protective or pathological immune response to influenza A infection.\n\nTechnical Summary\nVaccines against many chronic viral infections are still lacking. In these cases, natural infection does not elicit an immune response strong enough to clear the infection and, therefore, vaccination should aim to induce a quantitatively and/or qualitatively better response. This has not been achieved to date and further research into the basic aspects of immune-mediated protection and immunological memory is needed. Furthermore, protection against most persistent viruses relies primarily, or in addition to neutralising antibodies, on cell-mediated immunity. Thus, a better understanding of the protective value and the induction and maintenance of a protective T cell response in chronic viral infection will be essential for the development of effective vaccines. The aim of our research programme is two-fold: firstly, to gain a better understanding of the basic aspects of viral disease pathogenesis, the viral and host characteristics that determine viral persistence and clinical outcome and the correlates of a protective immune response, and secondly, to use this knowledge in the design of preventive and therapeutic vaccination strategies, able to induce or enhance long-term protective immunity against viral infection. Central to our approach is the use of appropriate animal models for infection with the relevant viral pathogens. Our experimental system of choice is the mouse as its haematopoietic system has been extensively studied and in addition to the accumulated knowledge there exists a vast array of reagents and genetic manipulation methodologies that facilitate the studies to a level unknown for many other organisms. Furthermore, its physiology and response to infection bear extensive similarities to the human, thus making the findings more relevant in terms of usefulness. To maintain the delicate evolutionary balance between viruses and their hosts in our studies, we have employed the murine leukaemia virus (MLV), a natural mouse virus, as the model pathogen. Murine leukaemia viruses are retroviruses which cause chronic infection in susceptible strains on mice, and may induce diverse outcomes, such as leukaemia, immune suppression and immunodeficiency, depending on the mouse and virus strain employed. In addition, our current research also involves the study of acute, cytopathic viral infections, such as influenza A infection, for which human influenza A viruses are used. These experimental systems are instrumental both in dissecting the basic mechanisms of viral disease and immune protection, as well as in investigating the efficacy of novel vaccination strategies in a pre-clinical setting.", 
    "endDate": "2015-03-30T23:00:00Z", 
    "funder": {
      "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.14105.31", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "id": "sg:grant.2764662", 
    "identifier": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "2764662"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "gtr_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "70EC902D-A7B8-4891-8016-37200CC405DB"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "extensive similarity", 
      "addition", 
      "clinical outcomes", 
      "retroviruses", 
      "knowledge", 
      "immunodeficiency", 
      "influenza A", 
      "humans", 
      "efficacy", 
      "smallpox virus", 
      "composition", 
      "terms", 
      "delicate evolutionary balance", 
      "natural mouse virus", 
      "approach", 
      "chronic infection", 
      "better understanding", 
      "most persistent viruses", 
      "immunity", 
      "natural infection", 
      "leukemia", 
      "two-fold", 
      "herpes viruses", 
      "human influenza A viruses", 
      "therapeutic vaccination strategies", 
      "research program", 
      "Vaccines", 
      "induction", 
      "study", 
      "pre-clinical setting", 
      "many other organisms", 
      "contrast", 
      "design", 
      "viral disease pathogenesis", 
      "technical summary", 
      "antiviral immunity", 
      "mechanism", 
      "basic aspects", 
      "model pathogen", 
      "main emphasis", 
      "many chronic viral infections", 
      "current research", 
      "date", 
      "correlates", 
      "several decades", 
      "viral diseases", 
      "many viruses", 
      "mice", 
      "levels", 
      "experimental system", 
      "pathological immune responses", 
      "host characteristics", 
      "current study", 
      "cell responses", 
      "protection", 
      "cytopathic viral infection", 
      "long-term protective immunity", 
      "findings", 
      "virus strains", 
      "novel vaccination strategies", 
      "retroviral infection", 
      "immune protection", 
      "susceptible strains", 
      "days", 
      "HIV", 
      "quality", 
      "host", 
      "murine leukemia virus", 
      "acute infection", 
      "prolonged incubation period", 
      "genetic manipulation methodologies", 
      "vast majority", 
      "appropriate animal models", 
      "infection bear", 
      "viral infection", 
      "haematopoietic system", 
      "antibodies", 
      "choice", 
      "infection", 
      "immune suppression", 
      "practical consequences", 
      "maintenance", 
      "cases", 
      "vast array", 
      "relevant viral pathogens", 
      "physiology", 
      "major challenge", 
      "vaccination", 
      "HTLV", 
      "diverse outcomes", 
      "hepatitis", 
      "timing", 
      "chronic viral infections", 
      "immune", 
      "viral persistence", 
      "protective immune response", 
      "aim", 
      "response", 
      "further research", 
      "use", 
      "many other viruses", 
      "reagents", 
      "development", 
      "appropriate mouse models", 
      "good response", 
      "influenza", 
      "virus", 
      "immune response", 
      "immunological memory", 
      "effective vaccine", 
      "usefulness", 
      "cells", 
      "individuals", 
      "immune system", 
      "protective value", 
      "basic mechanisms"
    ], 
    "name": "Antiviral immunity", 
    "recipient": [
      {
        "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.451388.3", 
        "type": "Organization"
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/grant/grant.2764662"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "grants", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-03-07T11:33", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com.uberresearch.data.processor/core_data/20181219_192338/projects/base/gtr_projects_0.xml.gz", 
    "startDate": "2005-04-30T23:00:00Z", 
    "type": "MonetaryGrant", 
    "url": "http://gtr.rcuk.ac.uk/project/70EC902D-A7B8-4891-8016-37200CC405DB"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/grant.2764662'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/grant.2764662'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/grant.2764662'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/grant.2764662'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

150 TRIPLES      19 PREDICATES      136 URIs      129 LITERALS      4 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:grant.2764662 schema:about anzsrc-for:2211
2 schema:amount Na0df828ccf7b4e37b072c88d7acd1ecb
3 schema:description Viral infections represent a major challenge to the immune system. Many viruses cause acute infections in humans, which can be rapidly fatal within days (e.g. influenza A and smallpox viruses). In contrast, many other viruses are able to persist chronically in infected individuals, despite the induction of an immune response (e.g. HIV, HTLV and hepatitis and herpes viruses) and generally the vast majority of individuals are chronically infected by at least one virus. These viruses can also be fatal, but typically after a prolonged incubation period, which can last up to several decades. Our aim is to better understand basic aspects of viral disease pathogenesis, the viral and host characteristics that determine viral persistence and clinical outcome and the quality of the immune response that can afford immune protection against viral infection. The main emphasis is placed on chronic viral infections and, in particular, retroviral infections. Current studies in appropriate mouse models address the mechanisms, by which the composition and timing of cell-mediated and antibody-mediated host immune response is regulated, the mechanisms responsible for what we call immunological memory, and lastly their practical consequences for the design of preventive and therapeutic vaccination strategies, able to induce long-term protective immunity against retroviral infection. In addition, current research concentrates on the protective or pathological immune response to influenza A infection. Technical Summary Vaccines against many chronic viral infections are still lacking. In these cases, natural infection does not elicit an immune response strong enough to clear the infection and, therefore, vaccination should aim to induce a quantitatively and/or qualitatively better response. This has not been achieved to date and further research into the basic aspects of immune-mediated protection and immunological memory is needed. Furthermore, protection against most persistent viruses relies primarily, or in addition to neutralising antibodies, on cell-mediated immunity. Thus, a better understanding of the protective value and the induction and maintenance of a protective T cell response in chronic viral infection will be essential for the development of effective vaccines. The aim of our research programme is two-fold: firstly, to gain a better understanding of the basic aspects of viral disease pathogenesis, the viral and host characteristics that determine viral persistence and clinical outcome and the correlates of a protective immune response, and secondly, to use this knowledge in the design of preventive and therapeutic vaccination strategies, able to induce or enhance long-term protective immunity against viral infection. Central to our approach is the use of appropriate animal models for infection with the relevant viral pathogens. Our experimental system of choice is the mouse as its haematopoietic system has been extensively studied and in addition to the accumulated knowledge there exists a vast array of reagents and genetic manipulation methodologies that facilitate the studies to a level unknown for many other organisms. Furthermore, its physiology and response to infection bear extensive similarities to the human, thus making the findings more relevant in terms of usefulness. To maintain the delicate evolutionary balance between viruses and their hosts in our studies, we have employed the murine leukaemia virus (MLV), a natural mouse virus, as the model pathogen. Murine leukaemia viruses are retroviruses which cause chronic infection in susceptible strains on mice, and may induce diverse outcomes, such as leukaemia, immune suppression and immunodeficiency, depending on the mouse and virus strain employed. In addition, our current research also involves the study of acute, cytopathic viral infections, such as influenza A infection, for which human influenza A viruses are used. These experimental systems are instrumental both in dissecting the basic mechanisms of viral disease and immune protection, as well as in investigating the efficacy of novel vaccination strategies in a pre-clinical setting.
4 schema:endDate 2015-03-30T23:00:00Z
5 schema:funder https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.14105.31
6 schema:identifier N1d1da854e4df45d585fc6c4ca43a7856
7 N77824bc15fea4d639092778f1fbdb361
8 schema:inLanguage en
9 schema:keywords HIV
10 HTLV
11 Vaccines
12 acute infection
13 addition
14 aim
15 antibodies
16 antiviral immunity
17 approach
18 appropriate animal models
19 appropriate mouse models
20 basic aspects
21 basic mechanisms
22 better understanding
23 cases
24 cell responses
25 cells
26 choice
27 chronic infection
28 chronic viral infections
29 clinical outcomes
30 composition
31 contrast
32 correlates
33 current research
34 current study
35 cytopathic viral infection
36 date
37 days
38 delicate evolutionary balance
39 design
40 development
41 diverse outcomes
42 effective vaccine
43 efficacy
44 experimental system
45 extensive similarity
46 findings
47 further research
48 genetic manipulation methodologies
49 good response
50 haematopoietic system
51 hepatitis
52 herpes viruses
53 host
54 host characteristics
55 human influenza A viruses
56 humans
57 immune
58 immune protection
59 immune response
60 immune suppression
61 immune system
62 immunity
63 immunodeficiency
64 immunological memory
65 individuals
66 induction
67 infection
68 infection bear
69 influenza
70 influenza A
71 knowledge
72 leukemia
73 levels
74 long-term protective immunity
75 main emphasis
76 maintenance
77 major challenge
78 many chronic viral infections
79 many other organisms
80 many other viruses
81 many viruses
82 mechanism
83 mice
84 model pathogen
85 most persistent viruses
86 murine leukemia virus
87 natural infection
88 natural mouse virus
89 novel vaccination strategies
90 pathological immune responses
91 physiology
92 practical consequences
93 pre-clinical setting
94 prolonged incubation period
95 protection
96 protective immune response
97 protective value
98 quality
99 reagents
100 relevant viral pathogens
101 research program
102 response
103 retroviral infection
104 retroviruses
105 several decades
106 smallpox virus
107 study
108 susceptible strains
109 technical summary
110 terms
111 therapeutic vaccination strategies
112 timing
113 two-fold
114 use
115 usefulness
116 vaccination
117 vast array
118 vast majority
119 viral disease pathogenesis
120 viral diseases
121 viral infection
122 viral persistence
123 virus
124 virus strains
125 schema:name Antiviral immunity
126 schema:recipient https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.451388.3
127 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/grant/grant.2764662
128 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-03-07T11:33
129 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
130 schema:sdPublisher N50e6f5c8e0734c75925a7f8701ff907a
131 schema:startDate 2005-04-30T23:00:00Z
132 schema:url http://gtr.rcuk.ac.uk/project/70EC902D-A7B8-4891-8016-37200CC405DB
133 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
134 sgo:sdDataset grants
135 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
136 N1d1da854e4df45d585fc6c4ca43a7856 schema:name gtr_id
137 schema:value 70EC902D-A7B8-4891-8016-37200CC405DB
138 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
139 N50e6f5c8e0734c75925a7f8701ff907a schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
140 rdf:type schema:Organization
141 N77824bc15fea4d639092778f1fbdb361 schema:name dimensions_id
142 schema:value 2764662
143 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
144 Na0df828ccf7b4e37b072c88d7acd1ecb schema:currency GBP
145 schema:value 4415364
146 rdf:type schema:MonetaryAmount
147 anzsrc-for:2211 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
148 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
149 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.14105.31 schema:Organization
150 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.451388.3 schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...