Prevalence and Screening of Hepatitis C in Belgium in 2015 View Homepage


Ontology type: schema:MedicalStudy     


Clinical Trial Info

YEARS

2015-2018

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that causes inflammation of the liver that can lead to diminished liver function or liver failure. The number of chronically infected persons worldwide is estimated to be about 170 million that is 2.35% of the world population. Most people infected with the hepatitis C virus have no symptoms of the disease until the advanced stages of liver disease have occurred, which may take several years. The long-term impact of HCV infection is highly variable, from minimal changes to extensive fibrosis and cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Advanced liver disease (ALD) can lead to significant clinical and economic consequences, including liver transplantation. HCV can reduce life expectancy and impair quality of life. HCV-related complications as well as the highly debilitating effects on patients represent a significant item of expenditure for the National Health Service. Because of the latency of infection, numerous country-specific population analyses suggest that HCV will cause an increasing number of liver-related deaths despite the dramatic drop in incidence and prevalence. These deaths will be related to prevalent HCV infection especially during and after World War II through indiscreet and widespread treatment with intravenous injection using contaminated syringes, needles and remunerated blood donors. Eradicating HCV infection can prevent the complications of HCV-related liver and extrahepatic diseases, including liver necroinflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis, HCC, and death. Newly discovered hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy with direct acting antiviral agents (DAA) like Simeprevir, sofosbuvir open a new chapter in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Those new treatment regimens promise oral dosing, higher SVR, shorter duration of treatment and fewer side effects. In a near future all patients should qualify for future all-oral therapies. However recent analysis have shown that increasing efficacy of treatment alone will not be able to reduce the HCV disease burden. The largest reduction in HCV-related morbidity and mortality can be obtained when higher efficacy therapies is combined with increased diagnosis and treatment rate. With a treatment rate of 10% it is possible to achieve a > 90% decline in total infections by 2030. This would require a 3-5 fold increase in diagnosis and/or treatment for most countries. The implementation of screening criteria for hepatitis C virus (HCV) such as targeting birth cohorts has potential effect on reducing the progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) to advanced liver disease (ALD) and could avoid unnecessary high financial costs and preserve quality of life. Robust data from public health surveillance, surveys of the general and risk populations are required to make decisions in allocating public health resources to diagnose, assess and treat HCV infection. In Belgium no recent prevalence studies have been conducted. The most cited anti-HCV prevalence is 0.87% based on a study in the Flemish population published in 1997 but collected in 1994. In a French Belgian population there was an overall seroprevalence of 0.6%. However, the population under study was not representative for the whole French community, because the recruited subjects were significantly younger. A survey among cirrhotic and hepatocellular patients in the French community revealed that 20% of cirrhosis and 47% of hepatocellular cancer were related to hepatitis C. The diagnosis rate of HCV in Belgium is estimated at 43%, signifying that more than 50% of HCV patients remains undiagnosed. Several studies have already mentioned that aged population especially those born after Second World War are carriers of hepatitis C virus infection. Early detection of HCV infection and treating before progress to advanced liver disease (ALD) is an excellent opportunity to rationalize resource allocation and to improve patients' quality of life. Recently birth cohort screening recommendations were developed in the United States. In Belgium, no formal screening strategy exists. However the Belgian association of the study of the liver (BASL) recommends targeted HCV screening for high-risk populations (including individuals with a blood transfusion or major medical event prior to 1 july 1990, intranasal or IDU and dialysis patients) in addition to nontargeted screening among pre-operative patients and pregnant women. A birth cohort analysis based on a model suggests a birth cohort between 1950 and 1975 in Belgium. This population should reflect 70% of the viremic population. In this study, the investigators want to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C in Belgium in 2014 and to confirm the proposed targeted birth cohort and other risk factors. These data could provide an efficient source of identifying newly diagnosed patients as part of a national screening strategy. More... »

URL

https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02393365

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